Ryzhov B. N. The system of motivational oppositions as the basis of psychological individuality

Preuss F., Perevozkina Yu. M. Interconnection and types of social relations of role socialization system formation: metasystem approach

Ryzhov B. N. The actual-self, ideal-self and hidden-self (with Translation into English by L. A. Mashkova)

Ryzhov B. N., Tarasova А. А. Emotional Perception of Architectural Objects of 1920–1930s by Moscow Students (with Translation into English by L. A. Mashkova)

Kondratyev V. M. The Problem of Balance between Morality and Law in Human Education (with a Translation into English)

Ryzhov B. N. Psychological Age of Civilization (translated into English by L. A. Mashkova)

Aleksander T. A Review about Old Age and Disability (translated into English by A. Diniejko and into Russian by О. Leszczak)

A. A. Zych Silver University as an alternative for the polish solutions

B. N. Ryzhov THE PSYCHOLOGICAL AGE OF CIVILIZATION: the XV century, the North Renaissance

Yu. M. Perevozkina, V. G. Fedosov, F. Prusse Functional organization of impasa-role socialization of youth: metasystemic approach

T. Macho, I. V. Lebedeva, M. M. Bicharova. Migration in Europe as systemic phenomenon of the contemporary society

G. Gross, J. S. Frolova From London to Moscow coronations: perceptions of monarchy

Simons G. Tangible threats through intangible means: aspects of BRICS information and communication security

Ryzhov B. N., Mashkova L. A., Stolyarova G. I. Dynamics of motivational indicators in high school

B.N. Ryzhov - Sistem psychology




Журнал » Journal_eng » Journal 36 : A. B. Karpov, M. V. Smirnova, EVOLUTION OF SYSTEM IDEAS ABOUT LABOR MOTIVATION
    Views: 122

UDC 159.9

DOI 10.25688/2223-6872. 2020.36.4.6




A. B. Karpov,

NPF «Materia Medica Holding», Moscow,



M. V. Smirnova,

NPF «Materia Medica Holding», Moscow,



The article provides an overview of the most significant theories that have affected the formation of approaches to the study of labor motivation over the past century. The presented review of theories combines both psychological concepts developed by the authors from the position of personality psychology, social and age psychology, and the development of sociologists and economists. A number of these theories are based on abstract ideas about motivation, many of them take as a base large-scale long-term studies of practical aspects of work motivation.

Based on the review of the main principles of each of these theories, a systematic analysis of how the subject of study has changed and how the definition of work motivation has evolved is carried out. According to the results of a summary analysis of the evolution of the concept, the correspondence of the main postulates of the theories to the peculiarities of the historical period in which they were developed:  socio-economic processes, stages of industrial production, and the development of technologies is revealed. There are 4 stages of emergence of labor motivation theories. It is noted that with the completion of the last stage, the focus in the study of labor motivation began to shift to behavioral manifestations of motivation in the organization. The attention of researchers gradually began to switch to the study of employee satisfaction, loyalty and engagement.

One of the key ideas of the article is the conclusion about the need for a systematic approach to the work of a psychologist in an organization, which allows on the one hand  to create the most effective systems that stimulate high productivity, taking as a bases  the development of scientists in the field of labor motivation and on the other hand — using modern methods of assessing engagement, loyalty and satisfaction — to create the system for evaluating and managing behavioral manifestations of employee motivation. The prospects of studying work motivation from the perspective of system psychology are considered.


Key words: labor motivation; system approach; system psychology; involvement in work; meaningful theories of motivation; procedural theories of motivation; organizational psychology.

For citation: Karpov A. B., Smirnova M. V. Evolution of system ideas about labor motivation // Systems Psychology and Sociology. 2020. № 4 (36). P. DOI 10.25688/2223-6872.2020.36.4.6.


Karpov Alexey Borisovich, PhD in Psychology, Executive Master of Business Administration. Head of organizational development and human resources department of the scientific and production company «Materia Medica Holding», Moscow, Russia. 

E-mail: karpovab@yandex.ru

ORCID: 0000-0001-5437-3265


Smirnova Margarita Vyacheslavovna, senior HR manager of the scientific and production company «Materia Medica Holding», Moscow, Russia.

E-mail: khokhlovamv@gmail.com

ORCID: 0000-0003-0671-439X





1.Bazarov T. Yu., Karpov A. B. Faktory` trudovoj motivacii sovremennogo rabotnika (na primere rossijskoj farmacevticheskoj kompanii) [Factors of labor motivation of a modern employee (using the example of a Russian pharmaceutical company)] // Organizacionnaya psihologiya [Organizational psychology]. 2020. T. 10. № 1. P. 106–120.

2.Burganova L. A., Savkina E. G. «Chelovecheskie otnosheniya»: uroki Xotornskogo e`ksperimenta [“Human relations”: lessons from the Hawthorne experiment] // Vestnik e`konomiki, prava i sociologii. 2007. № 3. P. 91–103.

3.Gastev A. K. Kak nado rabotat`: prakticheskoe vvedenie v nauku organizacii truda [How to work. Practical introduction to the science of labor organization] / pod obshh. red. N. M. Baxraxa [i dr.]. 3-e izd. (Sovetskij proizvodstvenny`j menedzhment). M.: URSS: Librokom, 2011. 478 s.

4.Gerchikov V. I. Motivaciya, stimulirovanie i oplata truda. Ucheb. posobie [Motivation, incentives and remuneration. Tutorial]. M.: Izd-vo GU VShE`, 2004. 110 p.

5.Il`in E. P. Motivaciya i motivy`[ Motivation and motives]. SPb.: Piter, 2011. 508 p.

6.Karpov A. B. Vovlechennost` v rabotu — pokazatel` trudovoj motivacii sotrudnikov [Engagement in work - an indicator of employee labor motivation] // Sistemnaya psihologiya i sociologiya [Systems psychology and sociology]. 2018. № 3 (27). P. 74–83.

7.Leont`ev A. N. Deyatel`nost`. Soznanie. Lichnost` [ Activity. Consciousness. Personality]. M.: Smy`sl, Akademiya, 2005. 345 p.

8.Litvinyuk A. A.  Motivaciya i stimulirovanie trudovoj deyatel`nosti. Teoriya i praktika: uchebnik dlya bakalavrov [Motivation and stimulation of work activity. Theory and practice: a textbook for bachelors]. M.: Yurajt, 2019. 398 p.

9.Lomov B. F. Metodologicheskie i teoreticheskie problemy` psixologii: monografiya [Methodological and theoretical problems of psychology: monograph]. M.: Direkt-Media, 2008. 1174 p.

10.Magun V. S. Potrebnosti i psixologiya social`noj deyatel`nosti lichnosti. [Needs and psychology of social activity of the individual]. L.: Nauka: Leningr. otd-nie, 1983. 176 s.

11.Maznyak I. O. Teoreticheskie predstavleniya o trudovoj motivacii: analiz osnovny`h koncepcij [Theoretical ideas about labor motivation: analysis of the main concepts] // Vestnik RUDN. Seriya: Sociologiya [Bulletin of RUDN. Series “Sociology”]. 2006. № 1 (9). P. 20–23.

12.Morozov V. V. Pokazateli motivacii v formirovanii loyal`nosti personala: Primer issledovaniya [Motivation indicators in the formation of staff loyalty: Example of research] // Vestnik Yuzhno-Ural`skogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriya: Psihologiya. Psihofiziologiya [Bulletin of South Ural State University. Series: Psychology. Psychophysiology]. 2010. № 27 (203). P. 56–62.

13.Onuchin A. N. Izuchenie vovlecheniya [Study of involvement] // The Human Resources Times. 2013. № 24. P. 29–35.

14.Richi Sh., Martin P. Upravlenie motivaciej: ucheb. posobie dlya vuzov [Motivation management: study manual for universities]. M.: YuNITI-DANA, 2004. 399 p.

15.Ry`zhov B. N. Sistemnaya psihologiya [Systems psychology]. M.: T8 Izdatel`skie Tehnologii, 2017. 356 p.

16.Skvorczov V. N., Maklakova E. A. Trudovaya motivaciya rabotnikov v sovremenny`h usloviyah [Labor motivation of workers in modern conditions] // Vestnik LGU im. A. S. Pushkina [Bulletin of Leningrad State University named after A. S. Pushkin]. 2013. № 1. P. 54–68.

17.Hekxauzen H. Motivaciya i deyatel`nost` [Motivation and activity]. SPb.: Piter, 2003. 859 p.

18.Yadov V. A. Otnoshenie k trudu: konceptual`naya model` i real`ny`e tendencii [Relation to labor: conceptual model and real trends] // Sociologicheskie issledovaniya [Sociological research]. 1983. № 3. P. 50–62.

19.Adams J. S. Inequality in social exchange // Advanced Experimental Psychology. 1965. № 62. P. 335–343.

20.Albrecht S. L. Employee engagement, human resource management practices and competitive advantage: An integrated approach / S. L. Albrecht et al. // Journal of Organizational Effectiveness: People and Performance. 2015. № 2 (1). P. 7–35. DOI:10.1108/JOEPP-08-2014-0042.

21.Alderfer C. P. Existence, relatedness, and grows: human needs in organizational settings. New York; London: Collier-Macmillan, 1972. 198 p.

22.Atkinson J. W., Litwin G. H. Achievement motive and test anxiety conceived as motive to approach success and motive to avoid failure // The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology. 1960. № 60 (1). P. 52–63.

23.Breevaart K., Bakker A. B., Demerouti E. Who takes the lead? A multi-source diary study on leadership, work engagement, and job performance // Journal of Organizational Behavior. 2016. № 37. P. 309–325. DOI:10.1002/job.2041.

24.Emerson Н. Efficiency as a basis for operations and wages. New York: Engineering Magazine, 1911. 112 p.

25.Gagne M. The Oxford handbook of work engagement, motivation, and self-determination theory. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014. 600 p. DOI: 10.1177/1475725715584700.

26.Herzberg F., Mausner B., Snyderman B. B. The motivation to work. New York: Wiley, 1959. 157 p.

27.Locke E. A. Toward a theory of task motivation and incentives // Organizational Behavior and Human Performance. 1968. № 3 (2). P. 157–189.

28.Maslow A. H. A theory of human motivation // Psychological Review. 1943. № 50 (4). P. 370–396.

29.Mayo E. The human problems of an industrial civilization. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1934. 171 p.

30.McClelland D. C. Personality. New York: William Sloane Associates, 1951. 686 p.

31.McGregor D. The human side of enterprise. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1960. 246 p.

32.Ouchi W. G. Theory Z corporations: Straddling US and Japanese molds // Industry Week. 1981. № 209 (3). P. 48–54.

33.Porter L. W., Lawler E. E. Managerial attitudes and performance. Homewood: R. D. Irwin, 1968. 209 p.

34.Rampersad H. K. The personal balanced scorecard: the way to individual happiness, personal integrity and organizational effectiveness. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing, 2006. 216 p.

35.Schein E. H. Organizational culture and leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2004. 438 p.

36.Scholz Ch. Personalmanagement. Informationsorientierte und verhaltenstheoretische Grundlagen, 1993. 940 p.

37.Senge P. M. The fifth discipline: the art & practice of the learning organization. New York: Currency doubleday, 1991. 306 p. DOI: 10.1002/pfi.4170300510.

38.Taylor F. W. The principles of scientific management. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1911. 144 p.

39.Vroom V. H. Work and motivation. New York: Wiley, 1964. 331 p.