B.N. Ryzhov - Sistem psychology




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D. V. Ivanov,

NSPU, Novosibirsk


The article considers the main scientific views about an active conductor of ideas of the Russian enlightenment, decembrist Ivan Dmitrievich Yakushkin (1793/1794–1857), who «had become wise by his bitter experience» and contributed a lot to the development of Russian psychological thought in the 30-th years of the XIX century. Yakushkin is a prominent organizer of the Decembrist movement and he has remained in Russian history as the author of notes, articles and letters shedding the light on the Russian philosophy of the enlightenment epoch. The image of Yakushkin-fighter, his spiritual needs, remaining at a rather high level, despite of all life's difficulties, confirms his own idea about a human’s life force and his personal manifestation.

Yakushkin's views, reflected in his works, are interested to understand the common genesis of the development of Russian philosophical and psychological thoughts of a human, his capacities and ideals. Yakushkin considers the development of a man from the natural science approaches of his time. He sees a man in his unfolding opportunities ready to realize himself and achieve greater success in the development in comparison with the surrounding world of nature. A Russian thinker insists on the need of understanding the world of nature, whereby the latter is also able to know its own identity. He believes in «reasonable» man as a creator of culture, who is able to a social life. «Yakushkin's man» becomes a person, he constructs his life, struggles to achieve significant results in it basing on the experience of previous generations and his own. The story of one man's life becomes part of his people's history and the history of the whole mankind.

In the context of the history of psychological thought Yakushkin is the follower of the Enlightenment epoch – the philosophical century (by A. S. Pushkin), who considered the humanity (as well as morality) the top every individual will have to achieve.

Yakushkin is a close friend of the outstanding Russian philosopher and philosophizing psychologist P. Y. Chaadaev. Their dyad «Chaadaev – Yakushkin» has become important to understand the main achievements of the Russian philosophy and psychology in the 30-th years of the XIX century. The letters touching upon their scientific preferences and views are of great interest for better understanding of the history of psychological thought.

Yakushkin's psychological views allocated on the general background of his philosophical positions are valuable to our contemporaries in terms of their historical and psychological reconstruction and interpretation.

This article uses historical and psychological reconstruction, the bibliographic method, promoting the systematization of the basic materials and sources as well as the psychological interpretation of the ideas of Russian philosophers about human nature, a human, his struggle and the principles allowing the Russian educator to describe psychological phenomena.

Keywords: human nature; system of psychological concepts; scientific approach; personality; vitality; fighting; a fighting man; intelligence; sensibility; virtue.


For citation:

Ivanov D. V. The psychological idea in Russia in 30TH years of the XIX century. I. D. Yakushkin // Systems psychology and sociology. 2017. № 3 (23). P.




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