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Журнал » Journal_eng » Journal 25 : «SYSTEMS PSYCHOLOGY AND SOCIOLOGY» AUTHORS, 2018, № 1 (25)

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«SYSTEMS PSYCHOLOGY AND SOCIOLOGY» AUTHORS, 2018, № 1 (25)

 

ROMANOVA Evgeniya Sergeevna — doctor of psychology, full professor. Director of the Institute of Psychology, Sociology and Social Relations at the Moscow City University. Head of the department of General and Practical Psychology at IPSSR at the Moscow City University. Honorary Teacher of the Russian Federation, Honorary Worker of Higher Professional Education of the Russian Federation. Laureate of the President of the Russian Federation Education Award in 1998. Laureate of the Russian Federation Government Education Award in 2009. Honorary Professor of the Moscow City University, member of the Presidium of Educational and Methodological Consolidation of the Universities of the Russian Federation. Honorary Worker of Higher School of the Russian Federation. E-mail: RomanovaES@mgpu.ru


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Журнал » Journal_eng » Journal 25 : E. N. Yudina, N. A. Moroz, THE CATEGORY OF ‘LIFEWORLD’ IN SOCIOLOGY AND LITERATURE

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THE CATEGORY OF ‘LIFEWORLD’ IN SOCIOLOGY AND LITERATURE

 

E. N. Yudina,

N. A. Moroz,

MTTSU, Moscow

 

The article is concerned with the concept of lifeworld, its interpretations and specifics of use in contemporary sociological concepts. According to the authors, lifeworld is a reality, which is not artificially created or externally imposed, it functions naturally. Its existence is obvious and unquestionable. The phenomenon of lifeworld originated long before a man attempted to rationalise and describe it. The notion of lifeworld is not limited to the category of natural world. This world has the common structure of scientific and ordinary phenomena, which includes historical and social experience of humanity and also its past, present and future. This concept is a complex of individual’s objective and subjective understanding of reality, social processes and natural phenomena. It is based on human interaction and accounts experience and knowledge gathered by previous generations.

The authors suggest that the category of lifeworld can be applied to analyze literary works. In the context of L. Tolstoy’s novel “War and Peace” the main representations of this term proposed by sociologists and special aspects of its interpretation by L. Tolstoy are compared. The authors come to the conclusion that the concept of lifeworld consists not only of daily routine, but it also includes the complex of senses of human existence and communication in the society. The analysis of the epoch of the War of 1812 in L. Tolstoy’s novel “War and Peace” demonstrates specifics and differences of the lifeworld of social classes in Russia in the early 19th century and its transformation under the influence of war and post-war period.

 

Keywords: sociology of everyday life; lifeworld; everyday life; daily routine; sense of life; social communication; L. Tolstoy; War and Peace.

 

For citation: Yudina E. N., Moroz N. A. The category of ‘lifeworld’ in sociology and literature // Systems psychology and sociology. 2018. № 1 (25). P. 110–118.


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Журнал » Journal_eng » Journal 25 : S. L. Lenkov, T. B. Matsyuk, COMPARATIVE SYSTEM ANALYSIS OF THE PHENOMENA OF VOLUNTEERISM AND VOLUNTEERING

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COMPARATIVE SYSTEM ANALYSIS OF THE PHENOMENA

OF VOLUNTEERISM AND VOLUNTEERING

 

S. L. Lenkov,

ISCFE RAE, Moscow,

T. B. Matsyuk,

ISCFE RAE, Moscow, TI MHEU, Tver

 

The article presents the results of a comparative system psychological analysis of the phenomena of volunteerism and volunteering. The analysis is performed with a multidisciplinary position and is based on the results of studies of these phenomena in the framework of psychology, sociology, pedagogy, cultural studies and Economics.

In accordance with the metasystem principle analysis was applied to metasystem, structural, functional, genetic and integrative aspects. For each of these aspects is highlighted the system-wide criteria for comparison of the studied phenomena. Performed specification and detail of these criteria, which highlighted a number of specific criteria that helped to identify the symptoms of both the broad similarity of the phenomena of volunteering and volunteerism, and some of their qualitative differences. In particular, it was found that the phenomenon of volunteerism is different from the phenomenon of volunteering earlier historical time of occurrence and, accordingly involvement in historically more long-standing socio-cultural tradition of domestic and some other countries (e.g., France). For volunteering, in contrast to volunteerism, in relation to an individual characteristic: an active form of participation, with priority given to the joint nature of its manifestations; a relatively wide sphere of influence activity to its organization and itsrelatively broad normative value and meaning, and the requirement of motivational Foundation. However, the system identified the sources of the broad similarity of the phenomena of volunteering and of volunteering, including target implementation of the basic needs of man and society in altruism, scoring high social importance of these phenomena and their ability to manifest as the basic subsystems of social communities, social activity and mental representation.

The overall conclusion of the study is that the actual sinonimizat concepts of volunteering and volunteerism that exist in modern scientific literature, not the real, objective non-identity of the relevant phenomena. The proposed provisions clarifying the essence of the phenomena of volunteerism and volunteering, as well as the definitions of the relevant scientific concepts.

 

Keywords: volunteerism; volunteering; volunteerism activities; volunteer activities; the system psychological analysis; the metasystem principle.

 

For citation: Lenkov S. L., Matsyuk T. B. Comparative system analysis of the phenomena of volunteerism and volunteering // Systems psychology and sociology. 2018. № 1 (25). P. 95–109.


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Журнал » Journal_eng » Journal 25 : L. I. Bershedova, L. P. Nabatnikova PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECT OF A FAMILY IN KUPRIN’S DESTINY AND CREATIVE ACTIVITY

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PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECT OF A FAMILY

IN KUPRIN’S DESTINY AND CREATIVE ACTIVITY

 

L. I. Bershedova,

L. P. Nabatnikova

MCU, Moscow

 

In the article the light is focused on the problems of moral and spiritual achievements and transformation of personhood basing on exploration of real story of life and oeuvre of the talented writer A. I. Kuprin whose life years have come to the time of dramatic social-historical cataclysms of the first triens of the 20th century.

Psychological understanding of personal and creative image of A. I. Kuprin is built on the analysis of his emotional and social world in the domain of family, society, epoch, exploration of complex and comprehensive diversity of his attitude to himself, to people and oeuvre on different stages of his life. Application in the investigation of biographical method as the alternative of getting into hidden sources of personality transformations allows on the one hand enveloping in common logics the writer’s brightest life situations, meaningful, trustworthy relationships and images of childhood, his emotional stresses and shocks, love and disappointments, life-changing events of his adulthood and сreative success, and on the other hand it allows building on this basement the causative-consecutive range of formation of A. I. Kuprin’s moral-spiritual stand as well as his actual perceptions of himself, family, life and implementation thereof in his oeuvre and in building-up of his own destiny.

Considerable attention is paid to Kuprin’s meaningful life periods in this article. The most important issue to emphasize here is the period of his childhood, which social situation of development is set by peculiarities of the family structure, its social status, financial standing, emotional atmosphere of child-parental relations, content of moral-ethical requirements. The time of building-up the own family during the first marriage reflects complex emotions of love and suffer, creative success and growth of readiness to change the life.

Love as the event comes to the writer during his second marriage and it changes the palette of his emotional world and the content of his oeuvre, which is centralized and focused on “life enlightening” feeling of love.

Social cataclysms are the source of the writer’s severe disappointments and refusal of new reality that results finally to immigration. The last life-stage of the writer is full of stress, internal disorder and nostalgia for his home country. Complex mix of feelings, events, relationships and disappointments in life and destiny of A. I. Kuprin give to the writer’s prose the unfading freshness and are the source of development of remarkable acumen that allows penetrating the inward of different people, the mystery of love to a woman, to a human and to the motherland.

 

Keywords: family; system; family values; marriage and family choice; love; emigration; personality; biographical method.

 

For citation: Bershedova L. I., Nabatnikova L. P. A psychological aspect of a family in Kuprin’s destiny and creative activity // Systems psychology and sociology. 2018. № 1 (25). P. 88–94.


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Журнал » Journal_eng » Journal 25 : D.V. Ivanov, N.A. Galyuk, PSYCHOLOGICAL THOUGHT IN RUSSIA IN THE XVIII CENTURY: TO THE ORIGIN OF BASIC IDEAS ABOUT THE POTENTIAL OF MAN, HIS STRUGGLE AND LABOR

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PSYCHOLOGICAL THOUGHT IN RUSSIA IN THE XVIII CENTURY:

TO THE ORIGIN OF BASIC IDEAS ABOUT THE POTENTIAL OF MAN,

HIS STRUGGLE AND LABOR

 

D.V. Ivanov,

N.A. Galyuk,

NGPU, Novosibirsk

 

The article is devoted to the consideration of psychological thought in Russia of the XVIII century, which contributed to the formation of basic ideas about the potential of a person, to the system of ideas about his struggle and work. The article deals with the basic historical conditions, which became a kind of preconditions for the development of psychological thought in the XVIII century. Among such conditions there is a new economic recovery experienced by Russia at the beginning of the XVIII century, its military victories and conquests, significant achievements in the social sphere, active work of Tsar Peter I and his entourage, which contributed to the manifestation of initiative and uniqueness of the mind of man of the time, the desire to participate in the historical transformations of the country and the state. New ideas about labour as a necessary and vital occupation of a person are analyzed.

It is noted that the age of Enlightenment is the time for a person to test his potential, the ability to fight and build his own life path. In the XVIII century the image of a person who can even change his fate, thanks to his professional skills and virtuous character is formed. Thanks to professional knowledge and skills creating relationships with others becomes noticeable in public life. It is shown that such changes in public life raised to a new level the psychological thought of the time, considering a person, his potential, struggle and work as a special kind of achievement. Changes have touched upon the attitude to the human body, which stopped to be represented as sinful, but on the contrary, is considered to be worthy of attention. The inner world (psyche) regarded as valuable and rich in content is diversely described.

Talking about people, educators believed in the improvement of them, «transformation» of their nature.

Representations of the psychological thought of earlier times (Ancient Rus, Moscow Kingdom) primarily cardiogenetics psychology, talking about «cordiality» and feelings, remain in the sphere of education.

However, at the same time, their rationality, ability to the height of «mental flight» is emphasized. In the views of philosophizing psychologists of the XVIII century there appeared the opportunity to solve the psychological problems of their existence. This could be done not only through «event» education and training, but also by climbing to the human in itself in accordance with each age stage, rising to the high levels of improvement, self-education of their morals and professional skills.

Man seemed to philosophizing psychologists of the Enlightenment free in its «nature», able through science and art to comprehend the proposed circumstances and its behavior aimed at achieving individual well-being. The idea of «philosophy of true well-being», allowing «to see the man happy» actively penetrates into psychological thought.» Man also looked ready to fight for independent life implementation. Struggle was defined as a kind of good in a person’s life, realizing his own potential. Knowledge of the meanings and manifestations of the struggle, highlighting of essential in its content at philosophizing psychologists of the time was of particular interest. The psychological thought of the XVIII century, crystallized ideas about a person, his potential, work and struggle, can be considered as a basis for further development of Russian psychology, the highlighting of its inherent system of basic concepts. Views and theories proposed by the psychological thought of the XVIII century deserve consideration and systematization in the course of investigation of a cradle and first principles of Russian psychology.

The article applies a historical and psychological reconstruction method and an accompanying technique of psychological interpretation, which allowed to recreate a number of ideas that have become significant for the national psychological thought.

 

Keywords: human; nature; potential; principle of perfection; «philosophy of true well-being»; training; craft; profession; struggle; labour; cardiogenetics psychology; life-fulfillment.

 

For citation: Ivanov D.V., Galyuk N.A. Psychological thought in Russia in the XVIII century: to the origin of basic ideas about the potential of man, his struggle and labor // Systems psychology and sociology. 2018. № 1 (25). P. 67–87.

 


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Журнал » Journal_eng » Journal 25 : B. N. Ryzhov,THE PSYCHOLOGICAL AGE OF CIVILIZATION: XV Century, the North Renaissance

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THE PSYCHOLOGICAL AGE OF CIVILIZATION:

XV Century, the North Renaissance

 

B. N. Ryzhov,

MCU, Moscow

 

The article is the continuation of the publication cycle devoted to system periodization of development of European civilization and the comparison of the stages of its development to the corresponding periods of a person’s life. The beginning of this research published in № 14–24 of the journal «Systems psychology and sociology» includes the description of analogies between the psychological development of a child from birth up to the age of 13–14 and the development of European civilization from the fifth to the beginning of the fifteenth centuries. The present part of the work is devoted to the next stage of onto- and phylogenetic development aimed to describe the analogy between the psychological characteristics of the early adolescence age and the main features in the art and culture of the early Northern Renaissance epoch in Flanders, when it was the center of the Northern seat of European civilization at that time.

In this regard the characteristics of emotional and personal development at the age of 15–16 are given, when a sense of beauty appears and the discovery of «Self» comes, but this kind of «Self» becomes moreholistic and it has some certain realistic features. While recognizing the revolutionary nature of these changes, indicating the end of the childhood and the beginning of the youth era, there is a fundamental similarity in the revolutionary processes taking place in the XV century in Flemish art, where the famous Ghent altar has become a peculiar manifesto of the epoch. That was the first time for the art of Western Europe when at the same time the perception with admiration for the beauty of some images changes to displaying heightened interest in the sensual reality of others, that just what young people do.

At the same time, the youthful desire for truthfulness and self-knowledge was reflected in the genre of realistic portrait arising in the first half of the XV century. The art of portrait has passed only a few decades from the first almost photographic paintings by Jan van Eyck, whose works have been marked with one peculiar feature, — the artist tried to highlighted a social status of a person depicted in the paintings, to Rogier van der Weiden’ s works, in the best of which there is an attempt to emphasise a psychological world of a person depicted in the paintings.

Finally, the comparison of the rapidly growing cognitive activity in early youth together with the information revolution that followed the invention of printing in the middle of the XV century is an additional confirmation that clarifies the psychological congruence of the considered epochs of life of a person and civilization.

 

Keywords: system periodization of development; systems psychology; psychological age of civilization; seats of European civilization; early adolescence; Jan van Eyck; Rogier van der Weyden; the invention of printing.

 

For citation: Ryzhov B. N. The psychological age of civilization (the continuation: XV century) // Systems psychology and sociology. 2018. № 1 (25). P. 55–66.


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Журнал » Journal_eng » Journal 25 : E. S. Romanova, B. M. Abushkin, PSYCHOLOGICAL COUNSELLING FOR ADOLESCENTS IN SITUATIONS OF THEIR PROFESSIONAL CHOICE

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PSYCHOLOGICAL COUNSELLING FOR ADOLESCENTS IN SITUATIONS OF THEIR PROFESSIONAL CHOICE

 

E. S. Romanova,

B. M. Abushkin,

MCU, Moscow

 

The article is devoted to the issue of psychological features of social behavior of adolescents based on two leading factors: the organization of their behavior at present on the basis of their current social interests and their conscious understanding of future professional activities. The present study has a task to organize a psychological work with adolescents in situations of their professional self-determination based on their accumulated social experience, represented by current interests (social values) and interests in their future professional activities (their career choices).

A psychological work with adolescents requires the high quality to diagnostic approaches, to their opportunity to objectifying adolescents’ individual interests at present and future. The present work shows that in-depth validity matters to the chosen field of research and it is based on a deep understanding of the content of the stimulus material offered to subjects, as a material covering all spheres of their social interaction.

The evidences that this methodology has in-depth validity are based on a long-run researches to build meaningful psychological content.

The results of previous studies, factorization of the results of various questionnaires allowed the authors to determine the list of social values held by adolescents in the framework of their current life, and a list of professional areas where different personal and intellectual qualities of adolescents are in demand, as well as their interests. The diagnostic value of the presented lists can only be defined in the situation of adolescent’ individual choice. The method of paired comparisons is used as a methodical reception in this work.

There are two author’s lists of values and professional areas in the article. An experimental study among 107 students showed the high efficiency of the proposed methods for diagnosing the features of professional self-determination in adolescents. The article presents the statistically processed results that complement the methodology with the material for the criterion evaluation.

 

Keywords: social values; professional self-determination; method of paired comparisons; socialization; self-realization; self-expression.

 

For citation: Romanova E. S., Abushkin B. M. Psychological counselling for adolescents in situations of their professional choice // Systems psychology and sociology. 2018. № 1 (25). P. 45–54.


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Журнал » Journal_eng » Journal 25 : Ju. Shulekina, A POLYCODE TEXT COMPREHENSION IN PRESCHOOLERS

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A POLYCODE TEXT COMPREHENSION IN PRESCHOOLERS

 

Ju. Shulekina,

MCU, Мoscow

 

It is shown that polycode texts are popular texts in the primary classroom, particularly in the initial stages of schooling. A vivid example polycode text (hypertext) is the textbook, the availability and the efficiency with which in speech therapy and educational psychology are shown in single studies. At the same time, in the didactic literature for preschoolers found a lot of options of polycode texts (comics, diagram, rebus, etc.), but there is a total deficit in the methodological developments concerning their application in teaching children. This makes the researchers face the fundamental task to study the processes of understanding a variety of polycode texts by preschoolers with disabilities to ensure the educational process new technologies of work with the educational text material.

The article discusses the possibilities of integration polycode technologies in methodical device of special support of students with disabilities. Known types of polycode texts are considered as effective means of the special educator and psychologist in the training of preschool and primary school children this category to master academic competencies.

The author presents the latest experimental data on the specifics of understanding polycode texts by children with general speech underdevelopment, shows how the text’s types(fiction and educational) impact on the natureof the semantic perception of its polycode shell and a transcript of its contents, and also proves the existence of significant differences in the perception and understanding polycode texts in preschoolers with normal  development, and in preschool children with general speech underdevelopment.

 

Keywords: polycode text; commix; text comprehension; mental-speech strategies; general speech underdevelopment; learning competences; special education.

 

For citation: Shulekina Ju. A polycode text comprehension in preschoolers // Systems psychology and sociology. 2018. № 1 (25). P. 36–44.


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Журнал » Journal_eng » Journal 25 : Е. A Ponomareva, MCU, Moscow, D. I. Ponomareva, T. A. Afonskaya, THE FEATURES OF PERSONAL DETERMINATION AND CORRECTION OF THE AGGRESSIVENESS IN ADOLESCENTS

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THE FEATURES OF PERSONAL DETERMINATION AND CORRECTION OF THE AGGRESSIVENESS IN ADOLESCENTS

 

 

Е. A Ponomareva,

MCU, Moscow,

D. I. Ponomareva,

T. A. Afonskaya,

MAI, Moscow

 

This article presents a study of the structure of adolescent impulses to clarify the content of the problems and evaluate the effectiveness of psychological treatment of various forms of teenage aggression. The objectives of the present study were: 1) the identification of incentive determinants of aggressive behavior of teenagers whose parents have repeatedly appealed to the clinical psychologist for advice; 2) analysis of the results on the basis of a projective test of L. Sondhi, as well as methods of «personal aggression and conflict» of E. P. Ilin – P. A. Kovalev — before and after the correction of psychological identity of minors. It is the contents the author’s methodology of training for the formation of a constructive (non-aggressive) behavior and the complex psycho-technical exercises for the correction of behavior in stressful situations. The study suggests that the target group at the significant level expressed by the following models of aggressive behavior: negative due to low self-esteem as a specific form of self-denial (vector «self-concept»); affective (paroxysmal vector). In the course of correctional training the most successfully managed to work through extreme variants of negative sexual and vectors; A positive dynamics of decrease on the scale of «intolerance of the opinions of others», «offensive», «obstinacy», «temper», «negative aggressiveness». It is noted that after the application of psycho methods exposure level in the target group of suspicion, vindictiveness, and totals of positive aggressiveness is not significantly changed. These final psychological diagnosis demonstrate the need to develop and apply additional measures of psychological adjustment for the results obtained. The possibility of using projective techniques L. Sondhi the practical psychologist with difficult teenagers allow a detailed assessment of the current state of the sphere of instincts, and to identify motivation — as a reactive nature, arising in response to the needs and frustrations of a teenager in a social environment, and the endogenous nature of having an internal cause genetic or other source that is not associated with the current situation. Methods of psychological correction impact applied during the study may contribute to the formation of teenagers the skills of effective behavior in difficult situations.

 

Keywords: adolescents; aggressiveness; aggressive behavior; personal determination; motivation; psychological correction; training; conflict; stress; projective method of L. Sondhi.

 

For citation: Ponomareva E. A., Ponomareva D. I., Afonskaya T. A. The features of personal determination and correction of the aggressiveness in adolescents // Systems psychology and sociology. 2018. № 1 (25). P. 26–35


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Журнал » Journal_eng » Journal 25 : O. A. Shamshikova, N. M. Klepikova, G. S. Taygulova, PSYCHOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE «DIAGNOSTICS OF SELF-AWARENESS FORMS» BY Z. ZABOROWSKI AND A. OLESZKIEWICZ

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PSYCHOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE «DIAGNOSTICS OF SELF-AWARENESS FORMS» BY Z. ZABOROWSKI AND A. OLESZKIEWICZ

 

O. A. Shamshikova,

N. M. Klepikova,

G. S. Taygulova,

NSPU, Novosibirsk

 

The article presents one approach to the study of the problem of self-awareness based on the attribution theory. The attribute perspective of the problem of self-awareness includes self-awareness contents and the four forms of its processing: individual, defensive, outer and reflective. That view is known as «the theory of contents and forms of self-awareness» (briefly: the CF theory) by Z. Zaborowski.

Theoretical description and experimental verification of the CF theory maid by Z. Zaborowski and A. Oleszkiewicz led to the creation of the «Diagnostics of forms of self-awareness» method [19], intended for measuring the intensity of the four forms of self-awareness focused on evaluation of four processes that foster person’s image of himself.

The first form — individual — includes the current information processing presenting the core content of self-awareness as a personality component, and it contributes to the strengthening and integration of the personality structure. The second form — outer — is based on objective information processing within social norms and standards, and it serves for solving problems of social adaptation.

The third one — defensive form — may get involved against a background of a sense of danger, frustration of needs and it reflects defense mechanisms for the information processing when there is a discrepancy between a person’s self-image and social norms and expectations.

The fourth form — reflective self-awareness — involves abstract symbolic processing of information about oneself and the world; promotes the formation of identity, the development of life plans and lifestyle.

The article represents the results of adaptation of West-European methods on a Russian sample (n = 121).

In the first phase the translation procedure of the questionnaire was implemented, the research version of the questionnaire was developed, in the second phase the psychometric characteristics of the methodology were analyzed: 1) the correlations between the responses (evaluating the suitability of statements); the questionnaire discriminative is revealed; 2) evaluating the reliability: the internal consistency of scales (The SpearmanBrown prediction formula, Cronbach’s alpha coefficient) and the resistance to retesting with two weeks interval (The Spearman’s rank-order correlation or rs-Spearman coefficient); 3) the structure validity is grounded.

 

Keywords: content of self-awareness; differentiation of self-awareness content; forms of self-awareness; reliability; validity; questionnaire discriminative.

 

For citation: Shamshikova O. A., Klepikova N. M., Taygulova G. S. Psychometric analysis of the questionnaire «diagnostics of self-awareness forms» by Z. Zaborowski and A. Oleszkiewicz // Systems psychology and sociology. 2018. № 1 (25). P. 13–25.


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