Digest

Ryzhov B. N. The system of motivational oppositions as the basis of psychological individuality


Preuss F., Perevozkina Yu. M. Interconnection and types of social relations of role socialization system formation: metasystem approach


Ryzhov B. N. The actual-self, ideal-self and hidden-self (with Translation into English by L. A. Mashkova)


Ryzhov B. N., Tarasova А. А. Emotional Perception of Architectural Objects of 1920–1930s by Moscow Students (with Translation into English by L. A. Mashkova)


Kondratyev V. M. The Problem of Balance between Morality and Law in Human Education (with a Translation into English)


Ryzhov B. N. Psychological Age of Civilization (translated into English by L. A. Mashkova)


Aleksander T. A Review about Old Age and Disability (translated into English by A. Diniejko and into Russian by О. Leszczak)



A. A. Zych Silver University as an alternative for the polish solutions


B. N. Ryzhov THE PSYCHOLOGICAL AGE OF CIVILIZATION: the XV century, the North Renaissance


Yu. M. Perevozkina, V. G. Fedosov, F. Prusse Functional organization of impasa-role socialization of youth: metasystemic approach


T. Macho, I. V. Lebedeva, M. M. Bicharova. Migration in Europe as systemic phenomenon of the contemporary society


G. Gross, J. S. Frolova From London to Moscow coronations: perceptions of monarchy


Simons G. Tangible threats through intangible means: aspects of BRICS information and communication security


Ryzhov B. N., Mashkova L. A., Stolyarova G. I. Dynamics of motivational indicators in high school

B.N. Ryzhov - Sistem psychology
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Журнал » Journal_eng » Journal 33 : B. N. Ryzhov, A. A. Tarasova, EMOTIONAL PERCEPTION OF ARCHITECTURAL OBJECTS OF 1920-1930s BY MOSCOW STUDENTS

  Просмотров: 328

UDC 159.9

DOI 10.25688/2223-6872.2020.33.1.02

 

EMOTIONAL PERCEPTION OF ARCHITECTURAL OBJECTS OF 1920-1930s BY MOSCOW STUDENTS

 

B. N. Ryzhov,

MCU, Moscow, RyzhovBN@mgpu.ru

A. A. Tarasova,

MCU, Moscow, tarasova-a9@yandex.ru

 

The article is devoted to Moscow students' emotional perception of the buildings pertaining to the construc-tivist style of the 1920s - the beginning of the 1930s, followed in mid-1930s by the big style, or the magna style (from the Latin "magna" — big). The change in style resulted from essential social and political processes taking place in the USSR at that time; the processes were related to the rejection of the utopian notion of the world revolution and its replacement for the patriotic ideology of the socialist state. In architecture this led to transition from constructivism to the new style which was supposed to combine the ideas of grandeur and power of the empire with the laconic strictness of socialist morality.

The research was held in 2019 on the basis of Moscow City University, with 60 university students ta­king part. Test subjects were offered two series of slides depicting architectural objects of the 1920-1930s. After viewing each image the participants carried out self-appraisal of their emotional state using SETA tech­nique (self-appraisal of emotional tone and activity). After viewing each series of slides the dominating emotio­nal state was diagnosed with the help of Carroll Izard's "Differential emotional scale".

The research showed that the architectural forms pertaining to "magna style" had a stronger appeal to test subjects. This result can be explained by the fact that a considerable part of educated young people suffer from the accumulated mental fatigue evoked by constructions made of glass and concrete; these impersonal constructions have been generated, for many decades, by modern architecture being under the tremendous pres­sure of minimalist traditions that can be traced back to the principles of constructivism of the 1920s. Against that background monumental imperial tectonics of the second half of the 1930s which used the elements of classical decor, expensive surfacing materials and other expressive means characteristic of traditional architectural styles clearly turned out to be in an advantageous position. The data obtained during the research serve as grounds for more close study and preservation of the constructions dating back to monumental imperial tectonics of the second half of the 1930s constituting unique architectural legacy.

 

Keywords: systems psychology; large-in-size-style in architecture; constructivism; emotions; emotional impact of architecture; art; perception of architectural objects.

For citation: Ryzhov B. N., Tarasova A. A. Emotional Perception of Architectural Objects of 1920-1930s by Moscow Students // Systems Psychology and Sociology. 2020. № 1 (33). P. 22-37. DOI: 10.25688/2223­6872.2020.33.1.02

 

Ryzhov Boris Nikolayevich, Doctor of Psychological Sciences, Professor, Head of the Department of Pe­dagogical, Developmental and Social Psychology at the Institute of Psychology, Sociology and Social Relations of the Moscow City University, Moscow, Russia.

E-mail: RyzhovBN@mgpu.ru.

 

Tarasova Anastasiya Aleksandrovna, a postgraduate student at the Department of Pedagogical, Develop­mental and Social Psychology at the Institute of Psychology, Sociology and Social Relations of the Moscow City University, Moscow, Russia.

E-mail: tarasova-a9@yandex.ru


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Журнал » Journal_eng » Journal 33 : E. S. Romanova, FEDOR MIHAJLOVICH DOSTOYEVSKY AS A MASTER OF WRITING ABOUT MENTAL STATES

  Просмотров: 204

UDC 159.9

 

DOI 10.25688/2223-6872.2020.33.1.01

 

 

 

FEDOR MIHAJLOVICH DOSTOYEVSKY AS A MASTER OF WRITING ABOUT MENTAL STATES

 

 

 

E. S. Romanova,

 

MCU, Moscow, RomanovaES@mgpu.ru

 

 

 

The article is about Dostoyevsky's extraordinary talent to write about the inner life of the characters in their entirety of human experiences. His deep understanding of the hidden motives of the feelings and actions of another human helped him to create unforgettable stories and images of the characters in the novels.

 

The author draws attention to the concept of the writer's expressive tools that reveal and reinforce the abili­ty to use them in describing any psychological situations. At first they reflect the movements of the soul and after they emerged in the body's movements. It is emphasized that Dostoyevsky was a master of socio-psychological portrait in which human's individuality is visible. The portraits of Dostoyevsky's characters are often described against the background of nature landscapes that in line with the characters' mood and feelings. It confirms the existence of a strong connection between the internal and external human's worlds and nature around him.

 

Particular attention is paid to psychological studies of facial expressions of Dostoyevsky's heroes and their glances that highlighting the importance and the force of experienced feeling.

 

Thus, the purpose of this article is to analyze the ways of describing the spiritual life of a human in Dosto­yevsky's novels. In conclusion it is emphasized that in Dostoyevsky's novels the true feelings of the heroes are often expressed not only in words, but in wordless ways — in a smile, body movements or even in silence.

 

 

 

Keywords: inner world; motives; mental states; expressive movements; psychological profile; emotions; loneliness.

 

For citation: Romanova E. S. Fedor Mihajlovich Dostoyevsky as a Master of Writing about Mental States // Systems Psychology and Sociology. 2020. № 1 (33). P. 5-21. DOI: 10.25688/2223-6872.2020.33.1.01

 

 

 

Romanova Evgeniya Sergeevna, Doctor of Psychological Sciences, Professor. Acting Director of the In­stitute of Psychology, Sociology and Social Relations at the Moscow City University. Head of the Depart­ment of General and Practical Psychology at the Institute of Psychology, Sociology and Social Relations of the Moscow City University, Moscow, Russia.

 

E-mail: RomanovaES@mgpu.ru


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Журнал » Journal_eng » Journal 32 : CONTENTS #32

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С O N T E N T S 

 

Psychological Researches

 

 

Romanova E. S., Abushkin B. M. Value-Semantic Orientation of Students’ Personality as a Factor for Development of Their Personal Potential

 

Kormacheva I. N., Klepikova N. М. Procrastination: Phenomenon and Scientific Problem

 

Khisambeev Sh. R. Voluntarily Execution of an Action as a Stage of Subjectivity Development

 

Kuzmina Т. I. Exploring the Self-Consciousness in Persons with Intellectual Disabilities using Case Study Technologies

 

 

History of Psychology and Psychology of History

 

 

Ivanov D. V. Systemic Ideas about Struggling Man in Russian Psychological Tradition (the Second Half of the XIX – Early XX Centuries)

 

Bershedova L. I., Nabatnikova L. P., Ryzhov B. N. Ilya Repin: the Life Circle

 

 

 

Sociological Researches

 

 

Kislyakov P. А. System-Personal Determinants of Safe Prosocial Behavior

 

Dobrina O. A. Social Risks of Modernity and Threats to Identity: Systematic Analysis of Z. Bauman’s Concept

 

 

 

Discussion

 

 

Kondratyev V. M. The Problem of Balance between Morality and Law in Human Education (with a Translation into English)

 

 

 

Anniversary

 

 

Antonina Nikolaevna Zhdan is the Luminary of Russian Psychology!

 

 

 

Information

 

 

Authors of the Journal «Systems Psychology and Sociology», 2019, № 4 (32)

 

Author Guidelines


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Журнал » Journal_eng » Journal 32 : V. M. Kondratyev, THE PROBLEM OF BALANCE BETWEEN MORALITY AND LAW IN HUMAN EDUCATION

  Просмотров: 468

THE PROBLEM OF BALANCE BETWEEN MORALITY AND LAW IN HUMAN EDUCATION

 

V. M. Kondratyev,

MCU, Moscow,

KondratyevVM@mgpu.ru

 

Theme of the XXIV World philosophical congress «Learning To Be Human», held in 2018 in Beijing, is interpreted by the author as a task of modern education, to realize which one must answer the questions: what kind of human being to be; how to become one; why should we learn to be a human being? The considerationof the history of mankind, undertaken by the author, shows the primacy of morality and the secondary nature of law. By nature, man is a moral being, and by training, a legal one.

The author proceeds from the fact that human education occurs not only within the walls of a school or university, but also in society, in the real life world of the person. The main contradiction in the development of modern society is the contradiction between law and morality, the domination of law over morality. One of the consequences of this domination is the incessant interethnic conflicts and wars in the world. The author puts forward a question about the peace-making function of education. The ability to influence social processes is determined by the level of the person’s conscious self-determination, which is a goal of edu cation. One of the resources of modern education is the concentration of knowledge and skills of teachers in students’ solving the research problems. Thus, the author suggests approaches to solving the problem of «learning to be human».

 

Keywords: human; personality; socialisation; morality; law; education; conscious self-determination.

For citation: Kondratyev V. M. The Problem of Balance between Morality and Law in Human Education // Systems Psychology and Sociology. 2019. № 4 (32). P. 103–108. DOI: 10.25688/2223-6872.2019.32.4.09.

 

Kondratyev Viktor Mikhaylovich, PhD in Philosophy, associate professor at the University-wide Department of Philosophy and Social Sciences at the Institute of Humanities Sciences of the Moscow City University, Moscow, Russia.

E-mail: KondratyevVM@mgpu.ru


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Журнал » Journal_eng » Journal 32 : O. A. Dobrina, SOCIAL RISKS OF MODERNITY AND THREATS TO IDENTITY: SYSTEMATIC ANALYSIS OF Z. BAUMAN’S CONCEPT

  Просмотров: 338

SOCIAL RISKS OF MODERNITY AND THREATS TO IDENTITY: SYSTEMATIC ANALYSIS OF Z. BAUMAN’S CONCEPT

 

 

O. A. Dobrina,

NSPU, Novosibirsk,

dobrina­o@mail.ru

 

This paper purposes to generalize, systematize and clarify the basic concepts of the theory of social risk and threats to identity in scientific work of the Polish-British philosopher and sociologist Z. Bauman. Bauman’s contribution to the development of the unifying approach characteristic of modern post-non-classical sociology is noted. The concepts of uncertainty and fluid modernity, the interaction of freedom and morality and retrotopia are analyzed.

Liquid modernity is presented as a special status of postmodern society, eroding traditional social foundations, structures, social ties. The core values of liquid modernity are freedom and consumption. Postmodern man seeks to free himself from the social and interpersonal obligations that bind him and to embody the ideal of unlimited consumption of new experiences and pleasures. The study presents the social consequences of this social attitude: the spread and legitimization of violence, organizational manipulation, social inequality and «self-inflicted» loneliness. The concept of retrotopia as a social construct of the idealized past is considered. The most significant element of the ideal social reconstruction is revealed: dialogue that restores the relations of discipleship, discipline and equality.

The author reveals the ideas about social risks and threats to identity, implicitly present in Bauman’s theory. Social risks are associated with the threat of loss of personal, professional, family, ethnic and civic identity; reduction of social cohesion and other priorities of sustainable development; unpredictability of consequences of random and irrational human choices; increasing social tension and frustration. These trends also lead to an exacerbation of socially negative experiences of loneliness, rejection and uselessness; they create risks of socialization defects for children born and brought up outside the family stability and security.

The author emphasizes the high level of perspective of Bauman’s theory to the development of the integrative paradigm of contemporary sociology and the possibility of introducing a deontological approach to modern theoretical sociology.

 

Keywords: uncertainty; liquid modernity; freedom; morality; retrotopia; social risks; threats to identity; systematic analysis; Z. Bauman.

For citation: Dobrina O. A. Social Risks of Modernity and Threats to Identity: Systematic Analysis of Z. Bauman’s Concept // Systems Psychology and Sociology. 2019. 4 (32). P. 92–102. DOI: 10.25688/22236872.2019.32.4.08.

 

Dobrina Olga Aleksandrovna, PhD in Sociology, associate professor at the Department of Social Psychology and Victimology of the Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University, Novosibirsk, Russia.

Е-mail: dobrina-o@mail.ru


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Журнал » Journal_eng » Journal 32 : P. A. Kislyakov, SYSTEM-PERSONAL DETERMINANTS OF SAFE PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR

  Просмотров: 407

SYSTEM-PERSONAL DETERMINANTS OF SAFE PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR

 

P. A. Kislyakov,

RSSU, Moscow,

pack.81@mail.ru

 

In modern conditions, the process of forming the social identity of the younger generation is complicated by consumer attitude to life, insufficient level of social and psychological protection, leveling of traditional moral values. Social institutions are faced with the task of developing safe prosocial behavior oriented to the benefit of society, as well as the formation of the ability to withstand social risk factors.

Taking into account the great practical importance of this direction, the article offers a review and discussion of domestic and foreign studies on the problem of prosocial behavior aimed at ensuring safety. The conclusion is that this psychological construct is a system of personal and due to the determinants on the individual level (satisfaction of needs for safety, stress, psychological well-being, tolerance to uncertainty, etc.), personality (adherence to moral norms, life orientation, etc.) and activity (social identity, interpersonal relations, etc.).

The aim of this study was to determine the impact of system-personal characteristics of a person (satisfaction of the need for safety, well-being, social identity) on the level of his prosociality.

The sample consisted of 90 people living in Moscow. The selection of respondents was carried out by spontaneous sampling using an Internet survey posted on the social network «VKontakte». The test battery was developed using the online service «Google Forms» and included the following psychodiagnostic techniques: «Content of prosocial identity» (GSA, Barriga et al., 2001, in the adaptation of N. V. Kuchtova); Questionnaire «Assessment of satisfaction of security needs» (O. Yu. Zotova); «Subjective well-being scale» (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G. Mendelsohn, J. Chiche in the in the adaptation of M.V. Sokolova); «Scale of identification with humanity» (S. McFarland, in the adaptation of T. A. Nestic). The data of sociological research «World Values Survey» (2010–2014) and the «European Social Survey – 2016» were also used for the analysis. Descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, regression analysis are used for calculations. The study revealed the relationship between the studied determinants, which indicates their systemic nature.

 

Keywords: prosocial behavior; psychological safety; system-personal determinants; system analysis; personality; behavior; well-being; social identity; psychological protection.

For citation: Kislyakov P. A. System-Personal Determinants of Safe Prosocial Behavior // Systems Psychology and Sociology. 2019. № 4 (32). P. 79–91. DOI: 10.25688/2223-6872.2019.32.4.07.

 

Kislyakov Pavel Aleksandrovich, Doctor of Psychological Sciences, Associate Professor, Head of the Department of Labor Psychology and Special Psychology of the Russian State Social University, Moscow, Russia.

E-mail: pack.81@mail.ru


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Журнал » Journal_eng » Journal 32 : L. I. Bershedova, L. P. Nabatnikova, B. N. Ryzhov, ILYA REPIN: THE LIFE CIRCLE

  Просмотров: 345

ILYA REPIN: THE LIFE CIRCLE

 

L. I. Bershedova,

L. P. Nabatnikova,

B. N. Ryzhov,

MCU, Moscow,

BershedovaLI@mgpu.ru,

NabatnikovaLP@mgpu.ru,

RyzhovBN@mgpu.ru

 

The article presents a system-psychological analysis of Ilya Repin’s life and work, whose 175th anniversary is celebrated this year. The presented approach based on knowledge of the objectively existing stages of person’s motivation development allows us to offer some views of the motivating reasons for his relationships with people around him and the meaning of a long artist’s block that he experienced on the decline of his life.

The artist’s childhood and youth, the beginning of his career and the circumstances of his first marriage in his youth as well as achieving creative heights during his adulthood are assessed from a systemic psychological points. Particular attention is devoted to the psychological assessment of the artist’s creative searches on the border of his adult and middle age in the 1890s. During these years Repin experienced the most critical period linked both to disagreements between him and his close people and the decline of the old realism art movement, unfolding before him. In addition, all this came against the mid-life crisis, that is specific for the age of 48–50 years and associated with the end of the period systemic development of a person and the beginning of the period of preservation of his inherent ties and relationships, in accordance with the system-psychological concept. Repin’s interest in teaching at the Imperial Academy of Arts was the way out of that crisis for him.

According to systemic-psychological concepts, the average age of a person is replaced by the age of maturity. The existential dominant of this period is altruism. A person returns to family values of a young age, but with a shift in emphasis from the actual reproductive aspirations to psychological interaction and emotional support of each other. This feature of ages and stages personality development is the key to understanding the role of second marriage in the life of an artist.

Finally, the peculiarity of old age, replacing adulthood, is a special attention to issues of self-esteem and protection of one’s personality, his “Self”. These values   will remain dominant at the end of Ilya Repin’s life.

 

Keywords: Repin; psychology of art; motivational sphere; system psychology; system analysis; creativity; the crisis of realism art movement; system periods of person’s life.

For citation: Bershedova L. I., Nabatnikova L. P., Ryzhov B. N. Ilya Repin: the life circle // Systems Psycho logy and Sociology. 2019. № 4 (32). P. 65–78. DOI: 10.25688/2223-6872.2019.32.4.06.

 

Bershedova Ludmila Ivanovna, Doctor of Psychological Sciences, Professor, Professor at the Department of General and Practical Psychology at the Institute of Psychology, Sociology and Social Relations of the Moscow City University, Moscow, Russia.

E-mail: BershedovaLI@mgpu.ru

Nabatnikova Ludmila Petrovna, PhD in Psychology, Associate Professor, Associate Professor at the Department of General and Practical Psychology at the Institute of Psychology, Sociology and Social Relations of the Moscow City University, Moscow, Russia.

E-mail: NabatnikovaLP@mgpu.ru

Ryzhov Boris Nikolayevich, Doctor of Psychological Sciences, Professor, Head of the Department of Pedagogical, Developmental and Social Psychology at the Institute of Psychology, Sociology and Social Relations of the Moscow City University, Moscow, Russia.

E-mail: RyzhovBN@mgpu.ru


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Журнал » Journal_eng » Journal 32 : D. V. Ivanov, SYSTEMIC IDEAS ABOUT STRUGGLING MAN IN RUSSIAN PSYCHOLOGICAL TRADITION (THE SECOND HALF OF THE XIX – EARLY XX CENTURIES)

  Просмотров: 405

SYSTEMIC IDEAS ABOUT STRUGGLING MAN IN RUSSIAN PSYCHOLOGICAL TRADITION (THE SECOND HALF OF THE XIX – EARLY XX CENTURIES)

 

D. V. Ivanov,

NSPU, Novosibirsk,

 ivanovdirkutsk@yandex.ru

 

The article deals with systemic ideas significant for the domestic psychological tradition in the second half of the XIX – early XX centuries regarding the phenomenon of struggle and struggling man. The person was seen to domestic thinkers, advocates of education and public education: V. I. Lyadov, N. F. Bunakov, P. F. Lesgaft, V. V. Gorinevsky, who defended the principle of development in psychological thought, as an individual capable of self-development, and a personality ready for self-improvement. The psychological mechanism of the process of development and self-improvement of a person, his personality was determined by such a phenomenon as «struggle», which allows you to express your essence, helps to reach the top of the development, to find your own human image. The struggle was listed as personally valuable, socially useful, army-military in its causality. According to the modern systemic positions struggle (its characteristics inherent in a particular person) allows to diagnose intellectual, emotional-volitional, valuable motivational features of personality, which had its justification, as shown by the historical and psychological reconstruction and psychological interpretation of scientific texts (articles, brochures, manuals, lectures, monographs), already in the domestic psychological tradition in the second half of the XIX – early XX centuries. The ideogenesis of the problem of struggling man, peculiar to the domestic psychological tradition, contains systemic ideas (statements and views) and a paradigm concerning the ways of formation and improvement of such a person.

 

 

Keywords: systemic ideas; psychological tradition; system positions; struggle; struggling man; statements; paradigm.

For citation: Ivanov D. V. Systemic Ideas about Struggling Man in Russian Psychological Tradition (the Second Half of the XIX – Early XX Centuries) // Systems Psychology and Sociology. 2019. № 4 (32). P. 52–64. DOI: 10.25688/2223-6872.2019.32.4.05.

 

Ivanov Denis Vasilievich, PhD in Pedagogics, Associate Professor at the Department of General Psychology and History of Psychology of the Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University, Novosibirsk, Russia.

E-mail: ivanovdirkutsk@yandex.ru


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Журнал » Journal_eng » Journal 32 : T. I. Kuzmina, EXPLORING THE SELF-CONSCIOUSNESS IN PERSONS WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES USING CASE STUDY TECHNOLOGIES

  Просмотров: 387

EXPLORING THE SELF-CONSCIOUSNESS IN PERSONS WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES USING CASE STUDY TECHNOLOGIES

 

T. I. Kuzmina,

MSUPE,

ta­1@list.ru

 

The article is devoted to the study of self-consciousness in individuals with impaired intelligence of adolescence and adulthood. The impact of self-consciousness as a regulator of social behavior on the formation of an adequate field of socialization of persons of this category is very large and, first of all, is important for the organization of dialogical relations of the subject with the outside world, which involves a situational request from the communication space and the subject’s response in the form of an act.

It is very difficult for a person with mental retardation to be in dialogical relationships with the outside world. His behavior is most often not conscious, but impulsive, reactive. It is not possible to talk about true awareness of behavior in relation to persons with intellectual disabilities, however, they can understand the causes and consequences of their own actions, especially with specially organized self-knowledge. At the same time, certain helplessness in solving real situational problems related to everyday life, but requiring orientation, evaluation and decision-making from the subject, including the moral plan, is noteworthy.

The author presents the diagnostic methodology “Situations” (stimulus material and criteria-parametric assessment base), which allows to study individual aspects of self-consciousness of persons with mental retardation in the context of solving situational tasks (a case study technology) and substantiating their potential actions in connection with the proposed problems.

The study involved 48 individuals with mild mental retardation aged 17 to 29 years, students and graduates of special (correctional) schools. The results of the study demonstrated the peculiarities of situational self-know ledge of mentally retarded persons at all thematic levels: 1) perception of the situation and potential behavior in it; 2) emotional attitude to the situation; 3) analysis of the individual basis of the act; 4) determination of the context of the act, its causes and consequences.

 

Keywords: situational diagnostics; case study; persons with mental retardation; intellectual disabilities; self-awareness; self-knowledge; self-concept; age; socialization; special-needs school.

For citation: Kuzmina T. I. Exploring the Self-Consciousness in Persons with Intellectual Disabilities using Case Study Technologies // Systems Psychology and Sociology. 2019. № 4 (32). P. 39–51. DOI: 10.25688/2223-6872.2019.32.4.04.

 

Kuzmina Tatyana Ivanovna, PhD in Psychology, Associate Professor at the Department of Special Psychology and Rehabilitation of the Moscow State University of Psychology and Education, Moscow, Russia.

E-mail: ta-1@list.ru


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Журнал » Journal_eng » Journal 32 : Sh. R. Khisambeev, VOLUNTARILY EXECUTION OF AN ACTION AS A STAGE OF SUBJECTIVITY DEVELOPMENT

  Просмотров: 360

VOLUNTARILY EXECUTION OF AN ACTION AS A STAGE OF SUBJECTIVITY DEVELOPMENT

 

Sh. R. Khisambeev,

The Kosygin RSU,

khisam@mail.ru

 

The article attempts to consider the genesis of voluntarily execution of various actions as a stage of subjectivity development in anthropogenesis and ontogenesis. Voluntarily performance of an action as a stage or stage of subjectivity formation is identified with volitional regulation of behavior. The transition from imitation to voluntary performance of an action is a phase transition that qualitatively changes behavior.

The main part of the article consists of three sections. The first section provides a brief overview of the formation of ideas about the appearance of will from the pre-scientific period to the present. Russian and foreign approaches to voluntariness are considered, and its connection with the development of higher mental functions is substantiated.

The second section describes a hypothetical reconstruction of the appearance of volitional regulation in the course of anthropogenesis. The essence of the hypothesis is as follows: the emergence of a social environment in ancient people, allowed to preserve artificial behavior programs and broadcast them to new generations through the mechanism of imitation. This contributed to the suppression of animal instincts, forcing to imitate repressed actions formed in society «duplicates»: facial expressions, gestures, shouting and articulate sounds. The appearance of proto-speech created the possibility of replacing the visual sample with a sound symbol, which in the situational context was accompanied by intonation and indication for concretization. Speech as a regulator of behavior, even in its rudimentary form, served as a prerequisite for the coordination of their own actions and the social microenvironment. Thus, the speech format was able to initiate various protocols of behavior of a group member and already in the team feed itself became an act of will.

The third section is devoted to consideration from the standpoint of developmental psychology of the problem of the appearance of volitional regulation in modern children. It is noted that in early childhood, when a child develops speech rapidly, one of the first children learns the imperative form of speech: commands given by adults «give me!», «Bring me!» and etc. Then, in the course of interiorization, the order from the outside turns into self-order, and the word-imperative becomes a means of self-government.

In conclusion of the article it is said that when person’s speech appears for the first time in  human both in the course of anthropogenesis and in ontogenesis, he acquires an instrument of activity regulation — it’s volition. The emergence of arbitrariness of actions becomes a decisive moment in the formation of subjectivity.

 

Keywords: will, action; voluntariness; autonomy; subjectivity; human; personality; nature; speech; environment.

For citation: Khisambeev Sh. R. Voluntarily Execution of an Action as a Stage of Subjectivity Development // Systems Psychology and Sociology. 2019. № 4 (32). P. 30–38. DOI: 10.25688/2223-6872.2019.32.4.03.

 

Khisambeev Shamil Raisovich, PhD in Psychology, Associate Professor at the Department of Clinical Psychology, Philosophy and Manusologii of the Kosygin Russian State University, Moscow, Russia.

 E-mail: khisam@mail.ru


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