Digest

Ryzhov B. N. The system of motivational oppositions as the basis of psychological individuality


Preuss F., Perevozkina Yu. M. Interconnection and types of social relations of role socialization system formation: metasystem approach


Ryzhov B. N. The actual-self, ideal-self and hidden-self (with Translation into English by L. A. Mashkova)


Ryzhov B. N., Tarasova А. А. Emotional Perception of Architectural Objects of 1920–1930s by Moscow Students (with Translation into English by L. A. Mashkova)


Kondratyev V. M. The Problem of Balance between Morality and Law in Human Education (with a Translation into English)


Ryzhov B. N. Psychological Age of Civilization (translated into English by L. A. Mashkova)


Aleksander T. A Review about Old Age and Disability (translated into English by A. Diniejko and into Russian by О. Leszczak)



A. A. Zych Silver University as an alternative for the polish solutions


B. N. Ryzhov THE PSYCHOLOGICAL AGE OF CIVILIZATION: the XV century, the North Renaissance


Yu. M. Perevozkina, V. G. Fedosov, F. Prusse Functional organization of impasa-role socialization of youth: metasystemic approach


T. Macho, I. V. Lebedeva, M. M. Bicharova. Migration in Europe as systemic phenomenon of the contemporary society


G. Gross, J. S. Frolova From London to Moscow coronations: perceptions of monarchy


Simons G. Tangible threats through intangible means: aspects of BRICS information and communication security


Ryzhov B. N., Mashkova L. A., Stolyarova G. I. Dynamics of motivational indicators in high school

B.N. Ryzhov - Sistem psychology
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Журнал » Journal_eng » Journal 28 : E. N. Rychikhina, E. V. Malinina, THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SOCIAL CONTROL IN SMALL BUSINESS IN A LARGE RUSSIAN CITY

  Просмотров: 405

THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SOCIAL CONTROL IN SMALL BUSINESS

IN A LARGE RUSSIAN CITY

 

E. N. Rychikhina,

MCU, Moscow,

E. V. Malinina,

SGA, Vladimir

 

Development of small businesses in Russia requires special attention from the authorities. Therefore municipalities must create conditions to increase the effectiveness of their control system. This article reviews the main methods to advance the control system for small businesses at the large city level, as well as approaches to improve its effectiveness. As an example, the article reviews the situation in Vladimir-city.

One of the important factors to increase the effectiveness is to develop a training system for entrepreneurs.

In large Russian cities, including Vladimir, such system of education and re-training of the entrepreneurs exists already. However for the small businesses, this system is not developed fully, therefore it cannot provide a full support to entrepreneurs and their demands. Furthermore, the current methods of education are not aligned with the entrepreneurs’ requests, based on the research conducted by the authors. This articles outlines the development of the modular education system and reviews the content of the suggested modular segments.

The authors noticed a weak marketing training of the entrepreneurs. Therefore authors highlight the importance of the training and overall suport. As a base authority level, the authors suggest the municipal financial department ‘Small Business Support Centre’ that can provide legal as well as marketing consultations. Integrated approach of the suggested methods will allow to increase the effectiveness of control of small businesses.

This articles reviews an important criteria to assess the effectiveness of Vladimir’s municipality to support the small entrepreneurship. This criteria was prepared based on an analysis of the current Program to Support Small Businesses. The authors of the article suggest two ways to resolve the issues found in the Program: a) procedural, i.e. changing methods of development and approval of this Program, and b) contextual, i.e. various methods to increase the effectiveness of municipality’s control system.

Outside of the city administration, the control of small businesses must be done on the community level.

That’s why the authors developed and outlined the criteria to assess the effectiveness of small business control for the following areas: economical, consultation, educational, labor market, informational, organizational, infrastructural, social and psychological. For each of these areas authors suggest qualitative and quantitative indicators to assess the effectiveness of control. The results of control and its effectiveness will be higher if the effectiveness will be assessed by monitoring method.

To summarize, the authors highlight that the effectiveness and the quality of system of social control of the small business in a large city will increase as a result of development and approval of such strategic programs that support the small business. The support from the municipality level must be provided at all levels and areas, including consultations, education, financial and information support.

 

Keywords: small businesses; the system of municipal control; large city; effectiveness of control; partnership of municipality and private sector.

 

For citation: Rychikhina E. N, Malinina E. V. The effectiveness of social control in small business in a large Russian city // Systems psychology and Sociology. 2018. № 4 (28). P. 112–124.


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Журнал » Journal_eng » Journal 28 : Yu. M. Perevozkina, F. Prusse, META-SYSTEM ORGANIZATION OF SOCIAL-AND-ROLE-BASED FUNCTIONING IN YOUTH

  Просмотров: 517

META-SYSTEM ORGANIZATION

OF SOCIAL-AND-ROLE-BASED FUNCTIONING IN YOUTH

 

Yu. M. Perevozkina,

NSPU, Novosibirsk,

F. Prusse,

Ernst-Moritz-Aredt University,

Greifswald, Germany

 

The article deals with the problem of role-based socialization in youth, that is the most active part of a society and they provides progress and innovative transformations in it. The aim is to reveal some principles of the structural organization of youth’s role-based socialization at the meta-system level. The term «role-based socialization in young people» is based on the standpoint of the meta-system approach, that acquires the status of structural formation of this system, and at the same time the status is able to influence all other levels in this system by regulating them. It is proposed, that a specific role behavior of a young person is determined by his needs, and this, in turn, means that roles affect young people’s socialization, providing a certain role behavior and activity within the acquired role in the social space. To proof the model of the role-based socialization in youth, the empirical study was conducted aimed to find out the impact of young people’s needs on their role-based behavior models and to explore the mutual determination between young people’s role models and their social functioning efficiency. The study was conducted on a selected group of students (N = 1287) aged 14 to 25 years. The final factor model of three integral factors of young people’s social functioning was obtained. The data on the statistically significant effect of young people’s needs on their role models (p ≤ 0.05) are given. A statistically significant co-variance relationship between the main roles and three integral factors of socialization (p ≤ 0.05) was discovered. Based on the results it is concluded that the level of involvement of young people into the social space depends on the role models that are determined by young people’s needs.

 

Keywords: role-based socialization in youth; role models; role behavior; system; meta-system; subjective well-being; social acceptance; social activity.

 

For citation: Perevozkina Yu. M., Prusse F. Meta-system organization of social-and-role-based functioning in youth // Systems psychology and sociology. 2018. № 4 (28). P. 100–111.


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Журнал » Journal_eng » Journal 28 : D. V. Ivanov, N. A. Galyuk, PSYCHOLOGICAL IDEA IN PHILOSOPHICAL AND PUBLICISTIC WORKS OF RUSSIAN EDUCATORS FROM THE BEGINNING OF THE XIX CENTURY

  Просмотров: 484

PSYCHOLOGICAL IDEA IN PHILOSOPHICAL AND PUBLICISTIC WORKS

OF RUSSIAN EDUCATORS FROM THE BEGINNING OF THE XIX CENTURY

 

D. V. Ivanov,

N. A. Galyuk,

NSPU, Novosibirsk

 

The article deals with the ideas of philosophical and psychological nature in the creative heritage of the major Russian educators of the early XIX century. The philosophical and psychological thought of the Russian educators, among them — the philosopher and lawyer A. P. Kunitsyn, the poet, critic and the philosopher P. A. Vyazemsky, the writer and diplomat A. S. Griboyedov, the historian and journalist M. P. Pogodin, contains the results of a serious methodological reflection about human nature, man, his place in the world. In their views, a person is a holistic entity, capable of assessing himself and his capabilities in his own life and creative work. Man is virtuous and intelligent, he is moral, capable of fighting for ideals and the possibility of self-manifestation. Positions in philosophical and psychological thinking of the Russian enlightenment can be seen and reconstructed in the context of cardioprotective principle and the principle of self-improvement, traditional of Russian thought, indicating a significant potential in the development of man and his moral, purely human nature. In their reflections, the Russian enlighteners of the early XIX century use the existing system of psychological concepts.Therefore, their heritage has become a kind of contribution to the domestic human studies, moral psychology, the very history of psychological thought in Russia, emphasized the «dialogue» conducted «through the centuries» by Russian thinkers about man.

Creative heritage of Russian educators of the early XIX century shows a deep interest in philosophical and psychological problems in Russia, where issues related to the understanding of human nature remain until our time in the focus of methodological reflection.

 

Keywords: human nature; rationality; virtue; labour; fighting; a fighting man; cardiogenetics principle; the principle of self-improvement in psychology; humanities; moral psychology; system of psychological concepts.

 

For citation: Ivanov D. V., Galyuk N. A. Psychological idea in philosophical and publicistic works of russian educators from the beginning of the XIX century // Systems psychology and sociology. 2018. № 4 (28). P. 84–99.


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Журнал » Journal_eng » Journal 28 : B. N. Ryzhov, THE PSYCHOLOGICAL AGE OF CIVILIZATION: the XV century, the North Renaissance

  Просмотров: 636

THE PSYCHOLOGICAL AGE OF CIVILIZATION:

the XV century, the North Renaissance

 

B. N. Ryzhov,

MCU, Moscow

 

The present article is the continuation of research devoted to system periodization of development of modern European civilization and the comparison of the stages of civilization development to the corresponding periods of a person’s life. The beginning of this research published in № 14, 15, 17, 19 of the journal «Systems Psychology and Sociology» includes the description of analogies in the psychological development of a child from birth up to the age of 13–14, and of the development of European civilization from the fifth century to the beginning of the fifteenth century. The present part of the work is devoted to the subsequent stage of ontogenetic and phylogenetic development with a view to describing the analogy between the psychological aspects of early adolescence and the particular qualities of art and culture of the early Northern Renaissance in Flanders, which at that time was the hub of the northern centre of European civilization.

In this connection the characteristic features of emotional and personal development at the age of 15–16 are given, including the emergence of the sense of beauty and the discovery of one’s own self — which in this period acquires a holistic tone and certain features of realism. While admitting the revolutionary character of these changes — indicating the end of the epoch of childhood and the advent of the epoch of adolescence — the author notes the basic similarity of revolutionary processes taking place in the Flemish painting of XV century whose artistic manifesto became the famous Ghent Altarpiece.

For the first time in the art of Western Europe admiration of the beauty of one group of images and interest to the sensuous reality of the other, characteristic of adolescent perception, were embodied in full effect.

At the same time, youthful aspiration for truthfulness and self-knowledge found its reflection in the genre of the realistic portrait originating in the first half of XV century. Just over the period of several decades portrait art went from the first paintings of Jan van Eyck seeking to depict the texture and the social status of the model photographically accurately — to the works of Rogier van der Weyden, in the best of which an attempt is already present to portray the characteristics of the inner psychological world of a person pictured. Finally, the juxtaposition of cognitive activity rising sharply in early adolescence and Information Revolution following the invention of book printing in the middle of XV century serves as additional confirmation of psychological congruence of the considered epochs — that of a human life and — civilization.

 

Keywords: system periodization of development; systems psychology; psychological age of civilization; early adolescence; centers of European civilization; early adolescence; Jan van Eyck; Rogier van der Weyden; book printing.

 

For citation: Ryzhov B. N. The psychological age of civilization: the XV century, the North Renaissance // Systems psychology and sociology. 2018. № 4 (28). P. 76–83.


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Журнал » Journal_eng » Journal 28 : B. A. Vyatkin, M. T. Tallibulina, HISTORY AND METHODOLOGY OF THE SYSTEM RESEARCH OF ABILITIES AND TALENTS AT V. S. MERLIN’S SCHOOL

  Просмотров: 475

HISTORY AND METHODOLOGY OF THE SYSTEM RESEARCH

OF ABILITIES AND TALENTS AT V. S. MERLIN’S SCHOOL

(FOR THE 120th ANNIVERSARY SINCE THE SCIENTIST’S BIRTH)

 

B. A. Vyatkin,

M. T. Tallibulina,

PSHPU, Perm

 

Introduction. The analysis of key studying stages of the problem of abilities and talents at the Perm’s scientific psychological school covering the period since the end of the 1950th so far is presented in article.

The original position of the concept of abilities developed by the V. S. Merlin and also the results of later theoretical, methodological and empirical researches of abilities and talents which are executed according to V.S. Merlin’s doctrine about the integrated individuality of the person and reflection of the current state of the problem are presented.

Methodology. It is noted that system methodology is at the heart of our approach of studying abilities and talents which have been developed at the Perm’s psychological school. Abilities and talents are considered in interrelation with properties of different levels of the integrated individuality which is the self-developed and self-organized system consisting of relatively closed subsystems or levels of the full big system «person – society», beginning with biochemical features and coming to the social position of a person in society.

The submitted review of the most important results of researches of the general and special (professional) abilities and special talents undertaken by our psychologists shows specific features of manifestation of these phenomena in connection with age, sex and the stage of professional activity.

Conclusion. The prospects of studying of abilities and talents consisting of the transition to a polysystem research of the integrated individuality, in various spheres of action, and the definition of the role of abilities and talents in the development of an individuality are presented in the article.

 

Keywords: system methodology; integrated individuality; abilities; talents; polysystem interaction.

 

For citation: Vyatkin B. A., Tallibulina M. T. History and methodology of the system research of abilities and talents at V. S. Merlin’s school (for the 120th anniversary since the scientist’s birth) // Systems psychology and sociology. 2018. № 3 (27). P. 64–75.


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Журнал » Journal_eng » Journal 28 : T. V. Pryakhina, G. A. Mishina,THE INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONAL STATE ON THE PROCESSING OF EMOTIONAL INFORMATION

  Просмотров: 458

THE INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONAL STATE

ON THE PROCESSING OF EMOTIONAL INFORMATION

 

T. V. Pryakhina,

RANEPA, Moscow,

G. A. Mishina,

RSUH, Moscow,

 

Introduction. Since the middle of the last century, the issue of the influence of emotions on the work of cognitive processes studied in psychology. There are two types of studies: the processing of emotionally stimuli and other research is the influence of emotions on attention, categorization, or creative thinking.

As a result, there is the idea that processes such as processing emotional information can be mediated by the current emotional state of a person. This hypothesis confirmed, for example, in people with depression there is a shift in attention toward anxious stimuli in comparison with healthy people. Psychologists use various methods to assess the processing of emotional information (the paradigm of «rapid visual sequential  presentation», «dot-probe task», etc.).

Methodology. In our study, the hypothesis of the influence of the current emotional state (happy or sad) on the processing of emotional information (dot-probe task) is tested. During the experiment, the participants divided into two groups: each group was induced a certain emotional state with the help of an autobiographical method (people were asked to recall the «joyful» or «sad» event from his life), then it was suggested to pass the «sample with a dot» technique, emotional state was given a self-report.

Results. With the help of statistical analysis, the differences between groups were calculated; however, none of the hypotheses was confirmed. However, the results obtained may be because the significance of this effect is weak and static power is not high.

Conclusion. The autobiographical method of inducing the necessary emotional state is effective. This method may be used in further studies. It is worth noting that the procedure is simple for the experimenter.

The use of dot probe procedure allowed us to develop a computer version of this paradigm, which makes it possible to further apply it. Obviously, the development of such experimental techniques is necessary because it allows us to study the role of emotions in cognition.

 

Keywords: emotions; emotional processing information; emotional attention; effect of congruency; task dot probe.

For citation: Pryakhina T. V., Mishina G. A. Tthe influence of the emotional state on the processing of emotional information // Systems Psychology and Sociology. 2018. № 4 (28). P. 55–63.


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Журнал » Journal_eng » Journal 28 : L. E. Semenova, V. E. Semenova, PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING OF PRESCHOOL TEACHERS

  Просмотров: 398

PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING OF PRESCHOOL TEACHERS

 

L. E. Semenova,

V. E. Semenova,

Nizhny Novgorod Institute of Education Development,

Nizhny Novgorod

 

Introduction. The article analyzes the problem of psychological well-being of teachers of preschool educational institutions. The main approaches of modern researchers to the consideration of the phenomenon of individual well-being, its main characteristics and structure are briefly outlined and on this basis the question of differentiation of the concepts of «psychological well-being» and «subjective well-being» is touched upon.

A General assessment of the degree of study of psychological well-being of the individual in the domestic psychology of recent decades is given. The article substantiates the urgency of the problem of psychological well-being of teachers of preschool educational institutions as one of the leading conditions of their successful professional activity and positive changes in the Russian education.

Organization and methods of research. An empirical study was carried out to study the characteristics of some professional characteristics of preschool teachers with different levels of psychological well-being, which included two stages. First, a comparative analysis of the degree of expression of the main components and the overall level of psychological well-being of preschool teachers working in groups with children with developmental disabilities, and their colleagues working in groups without children with disabilities.

Secondly, the comparison of the prevailing style of pedagogical communication and the status of professional identity in respondents with different levels of psychological well-being.

Research result. It is established that for preschool teachers working with children with disabilities, unlike their colleagues working in groups without children with disabilities, are characterized by lower rates, as most of the main components, and the overall level of psychological well-being. The data testifying that for psychologically successful preschool teachers in most cases are characterized by the predominance of the democratic style of interaction with children and the status of positive professional identity, while their less prosperous colleagues noted the predominance of the authoritarian style of pedagogical communication and the status of diffuse professional identity.

Conclusion. It is concluded that at a low level of psychological well-being preschool teachers are at risk for the manifestation of destructive styles of interaction with pupils and the lack of clear professional guidelines  and a sense of satisfaction with their professional development. However, such respondents are a minority, while many preschool teachers have personal characteristics that allow them to meet the guidelines and requirements of modern education.

 

Keywords: psychological well-being; professional characteristics; status of professional identity; styles of pedagogical communication; preschool teachers.

 

For citation: Semenova L. E., Semenova V. E. Psychological well-being of preschool teachers // Systems Psychology and Sociology. 2018. № 4 (28). P. 40–54.


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Журнал » Journal_eng » Journal 28 : A. N. Ryzhov, L. B. Smolovskaya, THE TECHNIQUE FOR SYSTEM DIAGNOSTICS OF A PERSON’S MOTIVATION AND VALUES: M-TEST

  Просмотров: 382

THE TECHNIQUE FOR SYSTEM DIAGNOSTICS

OF A PERSON’S MOTIVATION AND VALUES: M-TEST

 

A. N. Ryzhov,

L. B. Smolovskaya,

MCU, Moscow

 

The article is devoted to the description of a new psychodiagnostic technique for system diagnostics of a person’s motivation and values (M-test). The methodological background for the test is based on a system typology of motivation that allows to identify 8 special types of motivation, including 4 types of motivation for the development of biological and social systems (vital motivation, reproductive and cognitive motivation, motivation of self-realization), and 4 types of motivation to maintain the order in these systems (motivation of self-preservation, protection of «Self», altruistic and moral motivation).

In 2010 year a system motivation profile Test (SMT) was offered, composed of step-by-step ranking of 32 values, correlated with the main system types of motivation, divided into 4 tables with 8 values in each. To expand the capabilities of the test, its modification — M-test — is proposed that allows to add the profile of a person’s values to his motivation profile and the coefficient of the retest reliability to the results of the study.

Both types of the technique can be used in paper and electronic versions. The striking feature of the new test modification is the presence of the fifth table, that contains two values from each of the 4 tables, where the values received the highest ranks after the finishing of the basic testing stage. Thus, the fifth table summarizes the 8 most significant values for the person. The person ranks the values following the same logic as in previous testing version. Based on the results of this part of the work the structure of the person’s values is determined. The double ranking procedure of the most significant human values in the new version of the technique also allows to determine the retest reliability of the results.

The validation test was carried out in 2015–2018 years on the basis of a comparative assessment of the students’ results at three Moscow universities (Moscow city university, Russian state social university and Moscow institute for psychoanalysis) and the results of expert assessments of the students’ motivation  profile participated in the study. The curators of the groups, that accompanied students during their training, served as the experts. In total 610 people participated in the study. The correlation between the test data and the expert assessments was equal to 0.81, that indicates the validity of the proposed technique.

 

Keywords: motivation; motivation and values of a person; system psychology; motivation profile; values; the ranking of values.

 

For citation: Ryzhov B. N., Smolovskaya L. B. The technique for system diagnostics of a person’s motivation and values: M-test // Systems psychology and sociology. 2018. № 4 (28). P. 26–39.


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Журнал » Journal_eng » Journal 28 : V. A. Medintsev, G. S. Kostiuk QUESTIONS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE INTEGRATION IN THE CONTEXT OF SYSTEMIC DESCRIPTION OF CULTURE

  Просмотров: 477

QUESTIONS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE INTEGRATION

IN THE CONTEXT OF SYSTEMIC DESCRIPTION OF CULTURE

 

V. A. Medintsev,

G. S. Kostiuk

Institute of Psychology of the National Academy

of Pedagogical Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev

 

One of the possible prospects for the development of psychological science is the integration of the knowledge accumulated in it and the creation of a universal methodology for theoretical and experimental studies.

The article briefly outlines the modern scientific context of integration in psychology, emphasizes the its implementation difficulties. The presented methodological positions of G. A. Ball and the author of the article concern with integrative problems and the prospect of the nearest stage of research. It is shown that research on the integrative-personal approach, the cultural function of psychological science and the systemic nature of psychological knowledge can become a theoretical basis for the methodological development of a complex problems of psychological knowledge integrating. The main results are embodied in the developments of: a system of concepts for describing culture as a modi structure and personality as characteristics of a personal psychological modus; theoretical and methodological tools for a formalized description of the interaction of psychological science as a culture modus with its other modi; method of the set-theoretical description for processes (ST-method) and its applications in psychological research. In order to substantiate and develop the concept of psychological knowledge integration on this methodological basis, it is necessary to solve a number of research problems. Among the priorities: to overcome the difficulties on universalization of the representation of scientific-psychological knowledge; to propose a version of the synthesis of the results obtained within the framework of the natural-science and humanitarian paradigms. The main question that must be answered when carrying out these studies is formulated: what methodological tool for a universal description of the objects of psychological research and the presentation of scientific-psychological knowledge may be acceptable to the psychological community.

 

Keywords: natural-science and humanitarian paradigms; psychological science; culture; modus of culture; formalized descriptions in psychology; psychological knowledge integration.

 

For citation: Medintsev V. A. Questions of psychological knowledge integration in the context of systemic description of culture // Systems psychology and sociology. 2018. № 4 (28). P. 14–25.

 


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Журнал » Journal_eng » Journal 28 : A. A. Tyukov,SYSTEM ANALYSIS OF SUBJECT CATEGORIES IN THE HUMAN-SCIENCES

  Просмотров: 422

SYSTEM ANALYSIS OF SUBJECT CATEGORIES IN THE HUMAN-SCIENCES

 

A. A. Tyukov,

MCU, Moscow

 

Introduction. Development prospects of the modern general anthropology are driven by attempts to reach a consensus for subject positions in the study of the human being phenomenon. As a basis for such a consensus, the authors consider the system analysis of the status and contents of the original categories and notions derived from the disciplines that comprise a complex of sciences of a human being.

Methodology. The article investigates the prospects of integrating the methodology of systemic and integrative approaches to the system psychological sciences. In light of the modern systematology, systemic psychology by B. N. Ryzhov (1999) and the concept of integrative development psychology by АА. Tyukov (1998), the article focuses on the contents and technologies of systemic analysis in all spheres of the psychological knowledge. The methodological principle of a systemic psychological analysis underpins a statement of the integrated perception of personal, mental and activity-related characteristics of a human being in their joint development and manifestation. In the systemic analysis, in terms of the interpretation logics, there appear layers and levels that are on a mutually reflexive basis reflected in the theoretical description of the system. The systemic analysis includes a description of processes, on the one hand, and of structures, morphology and material as a mechanism constituting the processes described, on the other hand.

The essence of the psycho is determined as an endogenous, internal and subjective activity of an individual. Thus, individuality should be analyzed as an integral characteristic of a specific individual in the dialectical view of its development from birth to death. The idea of narrative psychology aims to offer a generalized systemic characteristic of the life history of a man. In addition, the tasks of such generalized suppose that a typological classification should be applied to identify specific individual features of a person.

Conclusion. It has become possible to postulate a categorical nucleus of general psychology due to the applied psychometry of personal attributes of a man, its mind and abilities at every stage of its ontogenesis.

Systemic typology of life activities, typology of mental activity in terms of mind scale, scope and speed, and typology of abilities for life activity as mastered and interiorized means of communication finally give a psychological characteristic of a real human individuality.

 

Keywords: System as an organic integrity; layers of systemic analysis; categorical nucleus of development psychology; systemic typologies; category of life activity; motivation; targeting; individuality as a notion of scientific psychology.

 

For citation: Tyukov A. A. System analysis of subject categories in the human-sciences // Systems Psychology and Sociology. 2018. № 4 (28). Р. 5–13.


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