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D. V. Ivanov, THE PSYCHOLOGICAL IDEA IN RUSSIA IN THE LATE XVIII – EARLY XIX CENTURY. V. F. MALINOWSKI

Журнал » Journal_eng » Journal 27 : D. V. Ivanov, THE PSYCHOLOGICAL IDEA IN RUSSIA IN THE LATE XVIII – EARLY XIX CENTURY. V. F. MALINOWSKI
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THE PSYCHOLOGICAL IDEA IN RUSSIA

IN THE LATE XVIII – EARLY XIX CENTURY. V. F. MALINOWSKI

 

D. V. Ivanov,

NSPU, Novosibirsk

 

In the history of Russian psychological thought up to the present time there are still many “white spots”, many names without proper coverage of their creative and scientific heritage. At the turn of the XVIII–XIX centuries one of the important figures for the national psychology, staying, however, in the shadow of the ideas of its own socio-political thought is Vasily Fedorovich Malinovsky (1765–1814), a very prominent Russian educator, the author of the famous work “Reasoning about war and peace” (1790–1798). Malinovsky is traditionally considered to be a diplomat and a teacher. He is the first Director of the Tsarskoye Selo Lyceum, teacher and mentor of the Russian genius Alexander Pushkin. The creative ascent of Malinovsky to the heights of life can be divided into three main stages. The first stage of his life is “apprenticeship”, the introduction to the philosophical and psychological traditions of both Western European and national social thought. The second stage is connected with his “service” to his Fatherland in the diplomatic field. The third stage, a small but very significant in the fate of this enlightener period is “mentoring”, where there are still, as the bibliographic analysis of materials about him shows, unnoticed his psychological views and theories, which became the basis for the understanding of human nature, and also his “Tsarskoye Selo” model of education of the individual.

Historical and psychological reconstruction and psychological interpretation of Malinovsky’s treatises, articles and letters show the presence of psychological concepts that allow us to point that this educator had psychological views and theories relating to man, his interactions with the society of his kind and with the world. Malinovsky had formed a holistic view of the person, which was not limited to logical conclusions, as it was also based on figurative-emotional, ethnic, historical reflections. Malinovsky is a follower of the national “psychology of the heart” or a cardiognostic principle in Russian psychology, he believes in the virtue of a kind person and the possibility of his appropriate development and education. In human behavior the intelligence, sensibility and will are organically revealed. Human society is able, according to this educator, to form a virtuous world order, which is beyond envy, hostility and war. Malinovsky advocated for the priority of ethic values, where moral ideals and highly moral qualities of people are fundamental. People can fight for their own self-improvement and the society should contribute to it.

With his views he supported the ideas of moral psychology, which was developing in the general philosophical and psychological reflection of the Enlightenment. The consideration of the system of Malinovsky’s psychological concepts shows the diversity of positions and interests of Russian enlighteners, helps to create a “smooth fabric” of the history of psychological thought in Russia in the late XVIII – early XIX centuries.

 

Keywords: moral psychology; cardiognostic principle; human nature; the system of psychological concepts; war; fighting; man fighting; intelligence; sensibility; will; “Tsarskoye Selo” model of education; virtue.

 

For citation: Ivanov D. V. Psychological Idea in Russia in the End of the XVIII – the Beginning

of the XIX Century. V. F. Malynovsky // Systems psychology and sociology. 2018. № 3 (27). P. 110–129.

 

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