B.N. Ryzhov - Sistem psychology




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D.V. Ivanov,

NSPU, Novosibirsk


The article considers basic scientific and psychological views of the great Russian enlightener of the beginning of the XIX century Pyotr Mikhailovich Lyubovsky, whose years of life are still unknown.

Very little information has been stored about P. M. Lyubovsky. He is a graduate of Kharkov University, master of philosophy with a broad outlook, studied philosophy, psychology, logic, philology. His outlook was formed on the basis of progressive views of the “philosophical century” (the Enlightenment). He was not only the successor of the ideas of Western European scientists, but also the traditions of the Russian thinkers who contributed to the development of national cardiogenetics and rationalist psychology.

The analysis of the creative heritage of the Russian enlightener showed that Lyubovsky made a significant contribution to Russian psychology, writing an interesting treatise, which he presented as a “guide” to the experimental “soul”, emphasizing the difference between rational and empirical psychology. “Dusheslovie” as “the word “about the human soul is one of their interesting directions and” research in the psychological thought of the Enlightenment in Russia. Lyubovsky’s work was interesting for readers, his contemporaries, as it helped identify a number of psychological phenomena and describe them by means of “empirical” research. The 19th century enlightener’s treatise is interesting at the present time as a kind of proof of the independence and originality of the Russian psychological thought, which has passed a long way of its formation and development.

The methodological paradigm, according to which the Russian thinker explains the human nature, allowed him to analyze the sensitivity, the potentiality of cognition inherent to an individual, his desires and will. Lyubovsky was interested not only in human feelings, memory, imagination, attention, but also in laws of mental activity of an individual, speech, the ability to cognize an individual himself, the world around him, his feelings and will.

The consideration of issues connected with the explanation of human nature by the description of the drives (“physical” and “mental”) as the basal causes of action and activities of an individual are particularly interesting for the author of the psychological treatise. The enlightener investigates the problem of temperaments correctly pointing to their mixing in human manifestations. The explanation of Lyubovsky human in man by his desire to work, his reliance on the principle of perfection, which is a cornerstone for psychological thought from ancient times to the present, becomes very significant. Man himself can be prosperous and ready to fight for independent life implementation.

Psychological views and theories of Lyubovsky are connected by internal logic, a single professional thesaurus, find consistency in the presentation. Historical and psychological reconstruction, bibliographic method in this study, along with the psychological interpretation of views, ideas and statements by Lyubovsky allowed to determine his place as significant in the history of Russian psychological thought.


Keywords: human nature; cardiogenetics psychology; rational psychology; sensitivity; intelligence; desire; temperament; will; fighting; man fighting; the system of psychological concepts.


For citation: Ivanov D. V. Psychological idea in Russia in the early XIX century. P. M. Lyubovsky //Systems psychology and sociology. 2018. № 2 (26). P. 69–81.




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