B.N. Ryzhov - Sistem psychology




    Views: 157




B. M. Kogan,

T. G. Kulikova,

MCU, Moscow


This work describes an analytical overview of contemporary world studies complex symptoms, United by the notion of low cognitive tempo (SCT, sluggish cognitive tempo). Currently, the syndrome of low cognitive tempo different researchers or is considered as one of the subtypes of Add (attention deficit disorder without Hyperactivity) or as a separate disorder, children with different diagnostic groups, and also children with normative development. SCT is characterized by the following manifestations: fixity on their views, often fantastic content, lightheaded, decreased motor activity, immobility, poludremotnoe status, etc. Neuropsychological analysis reveals the primarily the problems of maintaining optimum functional State (nejrodinamicheskij deficiency), reducing the speed of information processing and concentration. In the article, based on an analysis of world literature highlights the main indicators that separate symptom low cognitive tempo from the syndrome of hyperactivity with attention deficit (ADHD) already at pre-school age. A separate series of investigation revealed that \a low cognitive tempo is associated with a number of external correlates, including difficulties mastering the child training skills, the presence he has anxiety and or depression, difficulties in social communication with peers and adults. Submitted by analytical overview brings together existing research results at the moment, shows the need for SCT syndrome more detailed examination of the SCT, as a separate infringement, providing meaningful impact on learning processes and activities in all spheres of life, as well as highlights important areas for future research.


Keywords: low cognitive tempo; attention deficit disorder; attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity; Special psychology; Neuropsychology; nejrodinamicheskij deficiency; slowness; Dreaming awake; Inattentiveness; the speed of information processing; the concentration of attention; learning difficulties; depressivnost; anxiety; communication; social interaction and adaptation.


For citation: Kogan B. M., Kulikova T. G. Current research of low cognitive tempo in children: an analytical overview // Systems psychology and sociology. 2018. № 2 (26). P. 47–58.




1. Agris A. R. Cognitive and personality peculiarities in children with low tempo of activity and ADHD // Journal of Modern Foreign Psychology. 2013. № 1. P. 5–21.

2. Akhutina T. V. Methods of neuropsychological examination of children 6–9 years. M.: V. Sekachev.2017. 280 p.

3. Kulikova T. G., Baulina M. E. Neurophysiological and neuroanatomical correlates of children’s attention deficit hyperactivity disorder // Psychology, sociology and pedagogy. 2017. № 4. URL: http://psychology.snauka.ru/2017/04/8078/

4. International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision. Geneva,World Health Organization. 1995. URL: http://mkb10.su/download/mkb10_1_1.pdf

5. Ryzhov B. N. Systems psychology. 2-nd ed. M.: T8 Publishing Technologies, 2017. 356 p.

6. Semago N. Y., Chirkova O. Typology of deviant development: underdevelopment / ed. by M. M. Semago. M.: Genezis. 2011. 288 p.

7. Semenovich A. V. Introduction to neuropsychology childhood. M.: Genezis. 2008. 319 p.

8. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing, 2013. 992 p.

9. Barkley R. A. Distinguishing sluggish cognitive tempo from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adults // Journal of Abnormal Psychology. 2012. № 121. Р. 978–990. Doi: 10.1037/a0023961.

10. Barkley R. A. Distinguishing sluggish cognitive tempo from ADHD in children and adolescents: Executive functioning, impairment, and comorbidity // Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology. 2013. № 42. P. 161–173. Doi: 10.1080/15374 416.2012.734259.

11. Barkley R. A., DuPaul G. J., McMurray M. B. Comprehensive evalution of Attention Deficit Disorder with and without Hyperactivity as defined by research criteria // Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 1990. V. 58, № 6. P. 775–789.

12. Barkley R. A., Saxbe C. The Second Attention Disorder? Sluggish Cognitive Tempo vs. AttentionDeficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Update for Clinicians // Journal of Psychiatric Practice. 2014. V. 20 (1). P. 38–49. Doi: 10.1097/01.pra.0000442718.82527.cd.

13. Bauermeister J. J. Validity of the sluggish cognitive tempo, inattention, and hyperactivity symptom dimensions: neuropsychological and psychosocial correlates / J. J. Bauermeister, R. A. Barkley, J. A. Bauermeister, J. V. Martinez, K. McBurnett // Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. 2012. V. 40. № 5.P. 683–697. Doi: 10.1007/s10802-011-9602-7.

14. Becker S. P., Leopold D. R., Burns G. L., Jarrett M. A., Langberg J. M., Marshall S. A., Willcutt E. G. The internal, external, and diagnostic validity of sluggish cognitive tempo: A meta-analysis and critical review. // Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 2016. № 55.Р. 163–178. Doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2015.12.006.

15. Becker S. P., Luebbe A. M., Fite P. J., Stoppelbein L., Greening L. Sluggish cognitive tempo in psychiatrically hospitalized children: Factor structure and relations to internalizing symptoms, social problems, and observed behavioral dysregulation. // Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. 2014. № 42. Р. 49–62. Doi: 10.1007/s10802-013-9719-y.

16. Becker S. P., Luebbe A. M., Greening L., Fite P. J., Stoppelbein L. A preliminary investigation of the relation between thyroid functioning and sluggish cognitive tempo in children // Journal of Attention Disorders. 2017. № 21. Р. 240–246. Doi: 10.1177/1087054712466917.

17. Becker Stephen P. For Some Reason I Find it Hard to Work Quickly: Introduction to the Special Issue on Sluggish Cognitive Tempo // Journal of Attention Disorders. 2017. V. 21. № 8. Р. 615–622. Doi: 10.1177/1087054717692882.

18. Becker Stephen P., Garner Annie A., Tamm Leanne, Antonini Tanya N., Epstein Jeffery N. Honing in on the Social Difficulties Associated With Sluggish Cognitive Tempo in Children: Withdrawal, Peer Ignoring, and Low Engagement // Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology. 2017. Doi: 10.1080/15374416.2017.1286595.

19. Camprodon-Rosanas E., Ribas-Fitó N., Batlle-Vila S., Persavento C., Alvarez-Pedrerol M., Sunyer J., Forns J. Sluggish cognitive tempo: Sociodemographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics in a population of Catalan school children. // Journal of Attention Disorders. 2017. № 21. Р. 632–641. Doi: 10.1177/1087054716652477.

20. Carlson C. L., Lahey B. B., Neeper R. Direct assessment of the cognitive correlates of attention deficit disorders with and without hyperactivity // Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment. 1986. № 8. Р. 69–86.

21. Carlson C. L., Mann M. Sluggish cognitive tempo predicts a different pattern of impairment in the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, predominantly inattentive type // Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology. 2002. V. 31. № 1. P. 123–129. Doi: 10.1207/S15374424JCCP3101_14.

22. Fenollar Cortés J., Servera M., Becker S. P., Burns G. L. External validity of ADHD inattention and sluggish cognitive tempo dimensions in Spanish children with ADHD // Journal of Attention Disorders, 2017. № 21. Р. 655–666. Doi: 10.1177/1087054714548033.

23. Frick P. J. DSM-IV field trials for the disruptive behavior disorders: Symptom utility estimates / P.J. Frick, B.B. Lahey, B. Applegate, L. Kerdyck, T. Ollendick, G.W. Hynd, B. Garfinkel, L. Greenhill, J. Biederman, R.A. Barkley, K. McBurnett, J. Newcorn, I. Waldman // Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 1994. V. 33. № 4. P. 529–539. Doi: 10.1176/ajp.151.8.1163.

24. Hartman C. A. The relation between sluggish cognitive tempo and DSM-IV ADHD / C. A. Hartman, E.G. Willcutt, S.H. Rhee, B.F. Pennington // Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. 2004. V. 32. № 5. P. 491–503.

25. Jacobson L. A. Factor structure of a sluggish cognitive tempo scale in clinically-referred children / L. A. Jacobson, S. C. Murphy-Bowman, A. E. Pritchard, A. Tart-Zelvin, T. A. Zabel., E. M. Mahone // Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. 2012. V. 40. № 8. P. 1327–1337. Doi: 10.1007/s10802-012-9643-6.

26. Jarrett Matthew A., Gable Philip A., Rondon Ana T., Neal Lauren B., Price Hannah F., Hilton Dane C. An EEG Study of Children With and Without ADHD Symptoms: Between-Group Differences and Associations With Sluggish Cognitive Tempo Symptoms // Journal of Attention Disorders. 2017. Aug 1. Doi: 10.1177/1087054717723986.

27. Lahey B. B. Attention Deficit Disorder with and without Hyperactivity: Comparison of behavioral characteristics of clinic-referred children / B. B. Lahey, E. A. Schaughency, G. W. Hynd, C. L. Carlson, J. C. Piacentini // Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 1987. V. 26. № 5.P. 718–723. Doi: 10.1097/00004583-198709000-00017.

28. Lahey B. B., Pelham W. E., Schaughency E. A., Atkins M. S., Murphy H. A., Hynd G., Russo M., Hartdagen S., Lorys-Vernon A. Dimensions and types of attention deficit disorder // Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 1988. V. 27. № 3. P. 330–335. Doi: 10.1097/00004583-198805000-00011.

29. Lee S., Burns G. L., Becker S. P. Can sluggish cognitive tempo be distinguished from ADHD inattention in very young children? Evidence from a sample of Korean pre-school children // Journal of Attention Disorders. 2017. № 21. Р. 623–631. Doi: 10.1177/1087054716680077.

30. Lee S., Burns, G. L., Beauchaine T. P., Becker S. P. (2016). Bifactor latent structure of attentiondeficit/hyperactivity dis- order (ADHD)/oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms and first-order latent structure of sluggish cognitive tempo symptoms. Psychological Assessment. 2016. № 28. Р. 917–928. Doi: 10.1037/pas0000232.

31. Leopold D. R., Christopher M. E., Burns G. L., Becker S. P., Olson R. K., Willcutt E. G. Attentiondeficit/ hyperactivity disorder and sluggish cognitive tempo through- out childhood: Temporal invariance and stability from pre- school through ninth grade // Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 2016. № 57.Р. 1066–1074. Doi: 10.1111/jcpp.12505.

32. Ludwig H. T. Do sluggish cognitive tempo symptoms predict response to methylphenidate in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder-inattentive type? / H. T. Ludwig, B. Matte, B. Katz, L.A. Rohde // Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology. 2009. V. 19. № 4. P. 461–465. Doi: 10.1089/cap.2008.0115.

33. McBurnett K., Clemow D., Williams D., Villodas M., Wietecha L., Barkley R. Atomoxetine-Related Change in Sluggish Cognitive Tempo Is Partially Independent of Change in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Inattentive Symptoms // Journal of Child and dolescent Psychopharmacology. 2017. № 27 (1).P. 38–42. Doi: 10.1089/cap.2016.0115.

34. McBurnett K., Pfiffner L. J., Frick P. J. Symptom properties as a function of ADHD type: an argument for continued study of sluggish cognitive tempo // Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. 2001.V. 29. № 3. P. 207–213.

35. Penny A. M., Waschbusch D. A., Klein R. M., Corkum P., Eskes G. Developing a measure of sluggish cognitive tempo for children: content validity, factor structure, and reliability // Psychological Assessment. 2009. V. 21. № 3. P. 380–389. Doi: 10.1037/a0016600.

36. Reinvall O., Kujala T., Voutilainen A., Moisio A.-L., Lahti-Nuuttila P., Laasonen M. Sluggish cognitive tempo in children and adolescents with higher functioning autism spectrum disorders: Social impairments and internalizing symptoms // Scandinavian Journal of Psychology. 2017. № 58(5). Р. 389–399.Doi: 10.1111/sjop.12379.

37. Skirbekk B., Hansen B. H., Oerbeck B., Kristensen H. The relationship between sluggish cognitive tempo, subtypes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and anxiety disorders // Journal of Abnormal Child

Psychology. 2011. V. 39. № 4. P. 513–525. Doi: 10.1007/s10802-011-9488-4.

38. Wåhlstedt C., Bohlin G. DSM-IV-defined inattention and sluggish cognitive tempo: independent and interactive relations to neuropsychological factors and comorbidity // Child Neuropsychology. 2010. V. 16.№ 4. P. 350–365. Doi: 10.1080/09297041003671176.

39. Weiler M. D., Bernstein J. H., Bellinger D. C., Waber D. P. Information processing deficits in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, inattentive type, and children with reading disability // Journal of Learning Disabilities. 2002. V. 35. № 5. P. 448–461.

40. Willcutt E. G., Chhabildas N., Kinnear M., DeFries J. C., Olson R. K., Leopold D. R., Pennington B. F. The internal and external validity of sluggish cognitive tempo and its relation with DSM-IV ADHD // Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. 2014. № 42. Р. 21–35. Doi: 10.1007/s10802-013-9800-6.