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D.V. Ivanov, N.A. Galyuk, PSYCHOLOGICAL THOUGHT IN RUSSIA IN THE XVIII CENTURY: TO THE ORIGIN OF BASIC IDEAS ABOUT THE POTENTIAL OF MAN, HIS STRUGGLE AND LABOR

Журнал » Journal_eng » Journal 25 : D.V. Ivanov, N.A. Galyuk, PSYCHOLOGICAL THOUGHT IN RUSSIA IN THE XVIII CENTURY: TO THE ORIGIN OF BASIC IDEAS ABOUT THE POTENTIAL OF MAN, HIS STRUGGLE AND LABOR
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PSYCHOLOGICAL THOUGHT IN RUSSIA IN THE XVIII CENTURY:

TO THE ORIGIN OF BASIC IDEAS ABOUT THE POTENTIAL OF MAN,

HIS STRUGGLE AND LABOR

 

D.V. Ivanov,

N.A. Galyuk,

NGPU, Novosibirsk

 

The article is devoted to the consideration of psychological thought in Russia of the XVIII century, which contributed to the formation of basic ideas about the potential of a person, to the system of ideas about his struggle and work. The article deals with the basic historical conditions, which became a kind of preconditions for the development of psychological thought in the XVIII century. Among such conditions there is a new economic recovery experienced by Russia at the beginning of the XVIII century, its military victories and conquests, significant achievements in the social sphere, active work of Tsar Peter I and his entourage, which contributed to the manifestation of initiative and uniqueness of the mind of man of the time, the desire to participate in the historical transformations of the country and the state. New ideas about labour as a necessary and vital occupation of a person are analyzed.

It is noted that the age of Enlightenment is the time for a person to test his potential, the ability to fight and build his own life path. In the XVIII century the image of a person who can even change his fate, thanks to his professional skills and virtuous character is formed. Thanks to professional knowledge and skills creating relationships with others becomes noticeable in public life. It is shown that such changes in public life raised to a new level the psychological thought of the time, considering a person, his potential, struggle and work as a special kind of achievement. Changes have touched upon the attitude to the human body, which stopped to be represented as sinful, but on the contrary, is considered to be worthy of attention. The inner world (psyche) regarded as valuable and rich in content is diversely described.

Talking about people, educators believed in the improvement of them, «transformation» of their nature.

Representations of the psychological thought of earlier times (Ancient Rus, Moscow Kingdom) primarily cardiogenetics psychology, talking about «cordiality» and feelings, remain in the sphere of education.

However, at the same time, their rationality, ability to the height of «mental flight» is emphasized. In the views of philosophizing psychologists of the XVIII century there appeared the opportunity to solve the psychological problems of their existence. This could be done not only through «event» education and training, but also by climbing to the human in itself in accordance with each age stage, rising to the high levels of improvement, self-education of their morals and professional skills.

Man seemed to philosophizing psychologists of the Enlightenment free in its «nature», able through science and art to comprehend the proposed circumstances and its behavior aimed at achieving individual well-being. The idea of «philosophy of true well-being», allowing «to see the man happy» actively penetrates into psychological thought.» Man also looked ready to fight for independent life implementation. Struggle was defined as a kind of good in a person’s life, realizing his own potential. Knowledge of the meanings and manifestations of the struggle, highlighting of essential in its content at philosophizing psychologists of the time was of particular interest. The psychological thought of the XVIII century, crystallized ideas about a person, his potential, work and struggle, can be considered as a basis for further development of Russian psychology, the highlighting of its inherent system of basic concepts. Views and theories proposed by the psychological thought of the XVIII century deserve consideration and systematization in the course of investigation of a cradle and first principles of Russian psychology.

The article applies a historical and psychological reconstruction method and an accompanying technique of psychological interpretation, which allowed to recreate a number of ideas that have become significant for the national psychological thought.

 

Keywords: human; nature; potential; principle of perfection; «philosophy of true well-being»; training; craft; profession; struggle; labour; cardiogenetics psychology; life-fulfillment.

 

For citation: Ivanov D.V., Galyuk N.A. Psychological thought in Russia in the XVIII century: to the origin of basic ideas about the potential of man, his struggle and labor // Systems psychology and sociology. 2018.№ 1 (25). P. 67–87.

 

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