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Yu. M. Perevozkina,

V. G. Fedosov,

Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University, Novosibirsk,

F. Prusse,

Ernst-Moritz-Aredt University, Greifswald, Germany


The work develops the problem of impasa-role socialization of youth, being the most active part of society, ensuring progress and innovational transformations. The article purpose is determination of functional organization of impasa-role socialization of youth. The youth socialization is viewed in terms of symbolic interactionism. The particulate case of socialization — impasa-role socialization — is expected to be a system with integrated metasystemic level. A hypothesis resides in the fact that the wider and more sensible the complex of role imposits (basic role models) in the personality structure is represented, the more effective the social functioning of youth is. The experimental research which supposes studying of the experimental program influence (the purpose of which was the expansion of role repertory) on the effectiveness of social functioning of the youth with unsuccessful socialization is planned in order to provide the model empiric evidence. The research was performed on a number of students (N = 400). 98 students with unsuccessful socialization were selected on the basis of cluster analysis, and then were divided into two groups — control (N = 49) and experimental (N = 49). Their age range was varied from 17 to 25 years old. The methods for studying of the special features of socialization and role functioning of youth were used as the research methods.

The data about statistically important changes in the display of role direction, coherence, position constriction, role conflict and special features of subjective well-being, social frustration in the experimental group before and after the influence of p < 0,05 (Student t-test and χ2 McNemar test) is provided.

It is stated that youth role repertory expansion increases the social opportunities of the subjects in successful social functioning, which reflects the increase of general well-being, social involvement and subjective well-being.

The impasa-role socialization is the system with open metasystematic level, which the unique role compositions determine the individual role functioning at is concluded on the basis of the results obtained.


Keywords: youth socialization, role imposits, role behavior, metasystem, role conflict locus, subjective well-being.


For citation: Perevozkina Yu. M., Fedosov V. G., Prusse F. Functional Organization of Impasa-Role Socialization of Youth: Metasystemic Approach // Systems psychology and sociology. 2018. № 3 (27). P. 138–144.




The research relevance is determined by fundamental changes in political, economic, educational, social and other spheres. The quality transformations of the social environment, including information streams, fundamental changes in the system of Russian education and in the professional sphere correspondingly, greatly influence the factors and mechanisms of youth socialization. The problem of youth socialization is touched on in the works of both native (A. G.Asmolov [2], I. S. Kon [5], G. M. Andreeva [1] et al.) and foreign researchers (K. Jaskyte [16], J. M. Light, J. C. Rusby, K. M. Nies, T. A. B. Snijders [18], H. M. Inderbitzen [15], M. H. Keung [17] et al.), who research the social and psychological aspects of youth as a specific social and age group. The special characteristic feature of modern youth is its involvement into the information environment from birth. The virtual environment in turn allows expanding the social functioning of young people, determining the development of role multiplicity.

Role multivariation in turn can cause inconsistencies between the individual social expectations and the reality in which he is. In respect thereof arises the problem of social functioning of development of stages of modern youth involvement into the social and cultural environment with the role as the determining factor.

For the first time the concept of role as a factor of social relationships organization was developed in the works by G. Mid [7]. In accordance with the opinion of the symbolic interactionism founder, the personality consists of the set of social roles studied during interpersonal cooperation and influencing the individual behavior. Role as a unit of individual socialization is actively used in foreign social psychology offering the role model concept. The first research of this term belongs to R. K. Merton [19] according to whom the imitation of behavior or success of a particular person, usually very important one, is called the role model. The role model studying within the political image was performed in the works by Christina Wolbrecht & David E. Campbell [26], Vânia Carvalho Pinto [20]. The range of other researches approves the importance of the teacher’s role model for the students [11; 12; 13; 24; 25 et al.].

Therefore, the overview of modern researches addressed to studying of the role functioning of youth in the social environment demonstrates the significant number of researches addressed to this theme. This gives us the research and methodologic task concerning youth role functioning determining.




n this work we adhere to the basic positions of the role theory (G. Mid [7], I. S. Kon [6]) which considers socialization as the active role implementation via behavior.

In the opinion of the role approach representatives the role determines the direction and effectiveness of socialization, being the key figure. At the same time it is important to mention the weak development of the problem of revealing the patterns of role functioning and setting the role functions fulfilled in the social context, which can be revealed from the positions of systematic [10] and metasystematic approach [3; 4]. According to A. V. Karpov [3], some phenomena, in our case — socialization, can be represented as systems with involved metasystematic level. In the author's opinion the special feature of this level is the openness, which means the cooperation of the system with other systems being more general towards it and called metasystems. The essence of such cooperation is that the metasystem is transposed into the system and exists in a perfect state. Therefore, the objective reality (in our case — social roles) is doubled in the subjective environment (personality), gaining the perfect nature. According to A. V. Karpov [3], all the systems with involved metasystematic level have the ability of goal formation. The goal provides more openness of the components as the role imposits, ensuring their transformation into metacomponents. The wider and more adequate the complex of role imposits (basic role images; see [8; 9]) forming the subjective reality is represented, the more effective the social functioning of the subject is going to be. This thesis became the basis of the empiric research we have performed. Let us repeat the important result of the statements mentioned above, which can seem to be a paradox from the first sight — the essences which initially used to be the parts of metasystem (society) towards the personality, which the personality was involved into, become the components of impasa-role socialization. In case of their conjunction with the needs of the subject the role is implemented in the behavior.

In case if the role and the need differ, the transfer to previous stages is possible, beginning with the situation analysis and then repeating the functional cycle. But the implementation of role which does not satisfy the need or does not respond the social situation is possible due to insufficient inclusion of the individual into the social environment. In this case the individual conveys the asocial role functioning which can be expressed in artistic or destructive activities. According to Jeanne Spurlock [21], the social expectations can differ from personal role expectation of an individual and also contradict with his/her goals. The multiplicity and contradiction of individual role understanding with their social side often provoke conflicts and stresses, according to the author. Therefore, we formed a hypothesis which is as follows: the wider and more adequate the complex of role imposits in the personality structure is represented, the more effective the social functioning of youth is going to be.

The following methods of estimating the socialization and methods of determining the role functioning of youth were used during the research: Kaleidoscope method (Iu. M. Perevozkina, L. V. Panshina, O. O. Andronnikova, N. V. Dmitrieva1 ), Estimation of Role Conflict Locus (RCL) by P. P. Gornostai, Scale of Subjective Well-Being (SSWB), Scale of Social Frustration (SSF) by L. I. Wasserman.

The empiric basis of the research was formed on the number of students of Federal State Budget Educational Institution of Higher Education Novosibirsk State Pedagogic University (91 young men and 400 girls) aged from 17 to 25 years old, which was divided into two groups using the cluster analysis — the students with non-successful and successful socialization (the genuineness of the differentiation was approved on the level of p < 0.01 — the Student t-test). In accordance with the research tasks the test persons with unsuccessful socialization (N = 98) were divided into two groups — the control group (N = 49) and the experimental group (N = 49).

The experimental program was performed in relation to the experimental group; this program was directed at the expansion of the role repertory and, as a result, achievement of effective social role functioning and optimum of individual being of the subject. The program was performed within one studying year (10 months), once/twice per month for four hours, and provided group and individual forms of work so that individual sessions would be performed within the group work. Therefore, 12 group meetings were performed. The structural logic of the program included:

– introduction stage (1 session);

– basic stage

— 10 sessions divided into five spheres, two sessions each (contacts, professional, family, sexual and personal);

– conclusion stage (1 session).

Therefore, the forming stage provided the processing of basic role positions in each of the five life spheres, beginning with formal and informal roles and ending with deeper analysis of personal roles and integration of all the role imposits into the single role structure of an individual.

The estimation of effectiveness of the impasa-role support of the respondents with unsuccessful socialization was performed during the control stage, which included retesting the respondents of the experimental and control groups and comparing the results before and after the influence.




The obtained results of the comparative analysis (Student t-test for dependent and independent groups) approve that significant changes took place due to most parameters in the experimental group (table 1), which also has significant differences from the control group respondents due to most indicators (p < 0,05).



The variable “Subjective well-being” significantly increased in the experimental group after the influence (t = –2.26; p = 0.024). Before the performance of the impasa-role support the students with unsuccessful social functioning had distinctive depressive symptoms, irritation and emotional instability. The research results demonstrate that after the performance of the experimental influences the respondents became less vulnerable to emotional changes varying from sudden happiness to acute grief which took place before the influence; their depression, passiveness and apathy lowered (t = 2.63; p = 0.009). The statistically important decrease (t = 5.7; p = 0.000) of the ‘tension’ and ‘sensitivity’ parameters was revealed in the experimental group (t = 2.13; p = 0.034). Due to the complications of social functioning during the first testing, the mood changes were diagnosed in the experimental group, which approves the evidence of ill-being and general discomfort. These indicators tend to decrease significantly after the influence in the experimental group (t = 9.27; p = 0.000). Also the gradual increase of satisfaction with the activity was revealed in the experimental group (t = –3.12; p = 0.006). The results show that after the influence the indicators of satisfaction with the social achievements in the main important life spheres statistically significantly increased (from 11.07 grades to 15.17 grades). The social frustration statistically significantly decreased (t = 4.46; p = 0.000). Significant differences in the locus of role conflict (t = –8.32; p = 0.001) were revealed as well, which demonstrates that after the influence the experimental group students show the ability of harmonic combination of their personal needs and social role expectations (the intermediate type of locus of role conflict was diagnosed: М = 11.4 grades).2 2 We provide the experimental group data only because of the limited article volume. The statistically important differences of p > 0.05 were not detected in the control group due to all the indicators. The comparison of students due to the role factors in the experimental group before and after the influence showed the statistically important differences during the first and the second testing (table 2).



The students learned not only the professional, but also personal roles corresponding their age and sex; statistically significant differences between the students of the experimental group before and after the influence in the personality sphere were revealed (fig. 1)



The results of using the χ2 McNemar test demonstrate that after passing the program of impasa-role support, the percentage of students which possess the leading roles reflecting the adequate sexual role identity with the error probability less than 0.001 % among the participants of the experimental group significantly increased. The students who took part in the program began implementing the roles of creative direction (from 44.3 % to 80.95 %) and showing the role flexibility (from 26.68 % to 68.52 %) more in their role behavior. Also the statistically significant differences in family, professional and interpersonal spheres were revealed (McNemar test χ2 = 35.260 ÷ 366.178 p < 0.02, table. 2). The exclusion was the variable of impasa-role coherence with sex, due to which the statistically significant changes in the sphere of contacts and the professional sphere were not detected; and the significant changes in the sexual sphere were not detected due to any role factor (p > 0.05).


Result discussion


Thus, as a result of the experiment were detected the differences in the experimental group proving that the program of impasa-role support of youth with unsuccessful socialization supports the expansion of personality role repertory. This in turn increases the social abilities of subjects during the successful social functioning, which reflects the increase of general well-being, social involvement and subjective well-being. The obtained results reflect the fact that fuller representation of objective social reality as role imposits in the subjective environment determine the decrease of role conflict. This data complies with the results represented by K. Jaskyte [16], who determined that the decrease of role conflict among students (N = 210) is connected to adapting to a new social role. In accordance with the data provided by Heidi M. Inderbitzen, S. Kenneth Walters & L. Anita Bukowski [15] social statuses influence the feeling of social anxiety and depressive state among the number of teenagers. Due to the research data [23; 26] the role model significantly influences the successful socialization of students.

The obtained results comply with the range of researches, the purpose of which is determining the influence of role range expansion on the successful youth socialization [14; 22 et al.], which demonstrate that the identification of various types of role models among the students supports the increase of ecologic responsibility, leadership and positive attitude towards the educational institution.

The obtained results approve the changes of the impasa-role coherence with sex; most students are ready to perform the roles identical to their sex and age (more than 60%) in their behavior after the influence.

Wen-Chun Chang [27] proved in her research that the gender role of Taiwanese young women is closely related to their feeling of subjective well-being. Due to the data provided by the author, the way of women conceiving the ideals of women’s gender role at the labour market, in the family or politics is closely related to their social functioning and correspond the ideals of gender identity, which determines the feeling of social well-being.




Therefore, the obtained results and the research of role functioning provided above approve the statement that the correspondence of sex and age roles in basic spheres of personal life activity, closely related to the feeling of subjective well-being and satisfaction with professional, family and sexual roles, allow the subject to successfully adapt to society. This reflects the fact that the wider and more adequate the complex of role imposits reflecting the social realty is provided, the more effective the social functioning of the subject is going to be. In conclusion of this article it is to be mentioned that impasa-role socialization of youth can be represented as a system with included metasystematic level which has several subordinated levels. At the metasystematic level the unique role compositions determine the role functioning of a person; herein the clearer the role imposits are represented in the personality structure, the more effective the social functioning of the subject is going to be.

On the one hand, the role imposits are a social product reflecting the objective reality. On the other hand, at the personal level they act as informational formations preparing the individual, subordinating and ruling all the subordinated levels of the impasa-role socialization system. In this case the role imposits gain the status of the functional dynamics determinant.




This article illustrates the phenomenon of socialization from the position of new metasystemic approach and its particular case of functional organization of impasa-role socialization. The prerogative of this approach is achieving the new metasystematic level which allows developing the patterns of including the objective and social reality into the personality system as role imposits — basic role models. We hoped to obtain the model of impasa-role socialization determining the dynamic part of the role models, in the gnoseological functional term. These suggestions are based on understanding the fact that the trigger launching the socialization as the role functioning is the need which is sequentially compared to the social situation, role and role expectations.

This article explains the special features of impasa-role socialization of youth obeying the thesis about the completeness of representation of role imposits in the personality structure, which influences the effective social functioning of the subject.




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